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Bokkilden Gas Lift Handbook - G. Takacs - Innbundet (9780878148059)
Gas Lift Handbook - G. Takacs Innbundet
Del med andre
Utgitt:
Forlag:
PennWell Books
Innb:
Innbundet
Språk:
Engelsk
Sider:
525
Format:
29 x 22 cm
ISBN:
9780878148059

Gas Lift Handbook

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Innbundet Leveringstid: Ikke i salg
Vår pris: 1200,-
Gas lifting can be used throughout the whole lifespan of an oil well: from the time it dies until its abandonment. The Gas Lift Manual is a thorough, handy reference that is essential to the practicing engineer needing to successfully perform this type of artificial lift project. In his manual, Takacs imparts more than 30 years experience and research in the artificial lift methods arena. He starts the manual with an introduction to gas lift, and then moves on to the various parts of the gas lift model, including analysis and troubleshooting, as well as, common gas lift malfunctions. This book will be particularly useful to those needing to research this technology, as the author has supplied extensive resource references to other literature sources. Features & Benefits A handy single-source reference Includes extensive references for further research Ample illustrations help the reader understand the text

Gas Lift Handbook

Preface xv
Introduction to Gas Lifting
1(8)
Artificial Lifting
1(3)
Short History of Gas Lifting
4(1)
Basic Features of Gas Lifting
5(4)
References
8(1)
Production Engineering Fundamentals
9(160)
Introduction
9(1)
Properties of Oilfield Fluids
9(12)
Introduction
9(1)
Basic thermodynamic properties
10(2)
Liquid property correlations
12(1)
Water
12(1)
Crude oil
13(2)
Properties of natural gases
15(1)
Behavior of gases
15(3)
Gas property correlations
18(3)
Inflow Performance of Oil Wells
21(5)
Introduction
21(1)
Basic concepts
21(2)
The productivity index concept
23(1)
Inflow performance relationships
24(1)
Introduction
24(1)
Vogel's IPR correlation
24(2)
Fetkovich's method
26(1)
Single-phase Flow
26(18)
Introduction
26(1)
Basic principles
27(3)
Pressure drop calculations
30(1)
Single-phase liquid flow
30(2)
Single-phase gas flow
32(3)
Gas gradient in annulus
35(1)
Theoretical background
35(2)
Computer solution
37(2)
Universal gas gradient chart
39(1)
Choke flow
39(1)
Calculation of gas throughput of chokes
40(2)
Gas capacity charts
42(2)
Two-phase Flow
44(102)
Introduction
44(1)
Basic principles
44(1)
Two-phase flow concepts
45(1)
Flow patterns
45(1)
Superficial velocities
46(2)
Gas slippage
48(1)
Liquid holdup
49(1)
Mixture properties
50(2)
Multiphase flow
52(1)
Pressure gradient equations
53(1)
Two-phase flow in oil wells
54(1)
Background theories
54(1)
Vertical flow patterns
54(4)
Liquid holdup calculations
58(1)
Frictional and kinetic losses
59(1)
Inclined and annulus flow
60(1)
Empirical correlations
60(1)
Introduction
60(2)
Poettmann-Carpenter and related correlations
62(2)
Duns-Ros correlation
64(9)
Hagedorn-Brown correlation
73(5)
Orkiszewski correlation
78(7)
Chierici et al. correlation
85(1)
Beggs-Brill correlation
85(7)
Cornish correlation
92(1)
Mukherjee-Brill correlation
93(4)
Mechanistic models
97(1)
Introduction
97(1)
Aziz-Govier-Fogarasi model
98(5)
Hasan-Kabir model
103(7)
Further models
110(1)
Calculation of pressure traverses
111(3)
Accuracy and selection of pressure drop calculation models
114(1)
Introduction
114(1)
Possible sources of prediction errors
115(2)
Results of published evaluations
117(3)
Selection of an optimum model
120(1)
Conclusions
121(1)
Gradient curves
121(1)
Gilbert's gradient curves
121(2)
Other collections of gradient curves
123(4)
Horizontal and inclined flow
127(1)
Introduction
127(1)
Horizontal flow patterns
128(2)
Empirical correlations
130(1)
Lockhart-Martinelli correlation
130(4)
Dukler correlation
134(3)
Calculation of pressure traverses
137(2)
Flow through restrictions
139(1)
Critical flow correlations
139(3)
Critical flow criteria
142(2)
General calculation models
144(2)
Well Temperature
146(12)
Introduction
146(1)
Ramey's model
147(4)
Modification by Hasan-Kabir
151(1)
The Shiu-Beggs correlation
151(2)
The model of Sagar-Doty-Schmidt
153(2)
Gas lifted wells
155(3)
Systems Analysis Basics
158(11)
Introduction
158(1)
The production system
159(1)
Basic principles
160(1)
Application to gas lifting
161(2)
References
163(6)
Gas Lift Valves
169(76)
Introduction
169(11)
Downhole gas injection controls
170(1)
Evolution of gas lift valves
171(1)
Overview of valve types
172(2)
Supporting calculations
174(1)
Dome charge pressure calculations
174(3)
Injection pressure vs. depth
177(3)
Pressure-operated Gas Lift Valves
180(54)
Introduction
180(1)
Valve parts terminology
180(1)
Valve construction details
181(1)
Core valve and tail plug
181(1)
Gas charge
182(1)
Bellows assembly
182(3)
Spring
185(1)
Ball and seat
186(1)
Check valve
187(1)
Valve mechanics
188(1)
Introduction
188(1)
Unbalanced valves with spread
189(1)
IPO valves
189(8)
PPO valves
197(3)
Unbalanced valves without spread
200(1)
IPO valves
200(3)
PPO valves
203(1)
Balanced valves
204(1)
IPO valves
204(2)
PPO valves
206(1)
Pilot valves
206(1)
IPO pilot valves
206(4)
Combination valves
210(5)
Dynamic performance of gas lift valves
215(1)
Introduction
215(1)
Early models
216(3)
General models
219(1)
The API RP 11V2 procedure
220(6)
Valve performance curves
226(2)
Setting of gas lift valves
228(1)
Introduction
228(1)
Sleeve-type valve tester
228(1)
Encapsulated valve tester
229(1)
Application of gas lift valves
230(1)
Valve requirements for different services
230(1)
Continuous flow
230(1)
Intermittent lift
231(1)
Well unloading
232(1)
Advantages and limitations of different valves
232(2)
Running and Retrieving of Gas Lift Valves
234(4)
Gas lift valve mandrel types
234(1)
Conventional mandrels
235(1)
Wireline retrievable mandrels
236(1)
Running and retrieving operations
237(1)
Other Valve Types
238(2)
Differential gas lift valve
238(1)
Orifice valve
239(1)
Nozzle-Venturi valve
239(1)
API Designation of Gas Lift Valves and Mandrels
240(5)
Gas lift valves
240(1)
Gas lift mandrels
241(2)
References
243(2)
Gas Lift Installation Types
245(10)
Introduction
245(1)
Tubing Flow Installations
245(8)
The open installation
245(2)
The semi-closed installation
247(1)
The closed installation
248(1)
Chamber installations
248(1)
Two-packer chamber installations
249(1)
Insert chamber installations
249(1)
Special chamber types
250(1)
Multiple Installations
251(1)
Miscellaneous Installation Types
251(1)
Pack-off installations
251(1)
Macaroni installations
252(1)
CT installations
253(1)
Casing Flow Installations
253(2)
References
254(1)
Continuous Flow Gas Lift
255(96)
Introduction
255(1)
Basic Features
256(1)
The mechanism of continuous flow gas lift
256(1)
Applications, advantages, limitations
256(1)
Principles of Continuous Flow Gas Lifting
257(9)
Dead wells vs. gas lifting
257(1)
Basic design of a continuous flow installation
258(3)
Basic considerations
261(1)
The effect of injection depth
261(1)
Multipoint vs. single-point gas injection
262(1)
The effects of operational parameters
263(1)
Wellhead pressure
263(1)
Gas injection pressure
264(1)
Tubing size
265(1)
Description of System Performance
266(22)
Introduction
266(1)
Constant WHP cases
267(1)
Injection pressure given
267(5)
The Equilibrium Curve method
272(5)
Variable WHP cases
277(1)
Solution at the well bottom
277(3)
Solution at the wellhead
280(4)
System stability
284(3)
Conclusions
287(1)
Optimization of Continuous Flow Installations
288(27)
Introduction
288(1)
Optimization of a single well
289(1)
Prescribed liquid rate
289(1)
Existing compressor
290(3)
Compressor to be selected
293(5)
Unlimited liquid rate
298(1)
Economic considerations
298(2)
Existing compressor
300(3)
Compressor to be selected
303(5)
Allocation of lift gas to a group of wells
308(1)
Introduction
308(2)
Conventional calculation models
310(4)
Field-wide optimization
314(1)
Unloading of Continuous Flow Installations
315(29)
Introduction
315(1)
The unloading process
316(2)
General design considerations
318(2)
Unloading valve string design procedures
320(1)
IPO valves
321(1)
Variable pressure drop per valve
322(5)
Constant pressure drop per valve
327(2)
Constant surface opening pressure
329(3)
Balanced valves
332(2)
PPO valves
334(1)
Throttling valves
335(1)
Injection transfer
335(1)
Valve spacing and setting calculations
336(6)
Practical considerations
342(1)
Conclusions
343(1)
Surface Gas Injection Control
344(7)
Choke control
344(1)
Choke and regulator control
345(1)
Other control methods
346(1)
References
347(4)
Intermittent Gas Lift
351(42)
Introduction
351(1)
Basic Features
351(2)
Mechanism of operation
351(2)
Applications, advantages, limitations
353(1)
Surface Gas Injection Control
353(10)
Introduction
353(1)
Choke control
354(2)
Choke and regulator control
356(1)
Intermitter control
357(1)
Simple intermitter control
358(1)
Use of an intermitter and a choke
359(1)
Use of an intermitter and a regulator
360(1)
Casing pressure control
360(1)
Other controls
361(1)
Control devices
361(1)
Fixed and adjustable chokes
361(1)
Pressure regulators
361(1)
Time cycle controllers
362(1)
Intermittent Lift Performance
363(8)
The intermittent cycle
363(3)
Calculation of operational parameters
366(1)
Rules of thumb
366(1)
Empirical correlations
367(4)
Design of Intermittent Installations
371(10)
General considerations
371(1)
Constant surface closing pressure
371(5)
The Opti-Flow design procedure
376(4)
Unloading procedure
380(1)
Chamber Lift
381(7)
Basic features
381(1)
Equipment selection considerations
382(1)
Design of chamber installations
383(1)
Determination of chamber length
383(1)
Installation design
384(4)
Optimization of Intermittent Installations
388(5)
Intermitter control
388(1)
Choke control
389(1)
References
390(3)
Plunger-assisted Intermittent Lift
393(8)
Introduction
393(1)
Equipment Considerations
394(3)
Installation types
394(1)
Surface equipment
395(1)
Subsurface equipment
395(2)
Operating Conditions
397(4)
The intermittent cycle
397(1)
Calculation of operating parameters
398(1)
References
399(2)
Dual Gas Lift
401(6)
Introduction
401(1)
General Considerations
402(1)
Installation Design Principles
403(4)
Both zones on continuous flow
404(1)
One intermittent and one continuous zone
404(1)
Both zones on intermittent lift
405(1)
References
406(1)
The Gas Lift System
407(14)
Introduction
407(2)
Functions of the gas lift system
407(1)
Types of gas lift systems
408(1)
Gas lifting vs. field depletion
409(1)
Operation of Gas Lift Systems
409(4)
System components
409(2)
System operation
411(2)
System Design
413(8)
Introduction
413(1)
Factors to consider
413(2)
Design procedure
415(5)
References
420(1)
Analysis and Troubleshooting
421(14)
Introduction
421(1)
Troubleshooting Tools and Their Use
422(8)
Two-pen pressure recordings
422(1)
Pressure recorders
422(1)
Chart interpretation
422(4)
Gas volume measurements
426(1)
Downhole pressure and temperature surveys
426(1)
Introduction
426(1)
Running procedures for downhole surveys
427(1)
Flowing pressure surveys
428(1)
Flowing temperature surveys
428(1)
Acoustic surveys
429(1)
Common Gas Lift Malfunctions
430(5)
Downhole problems
430(2)
Problems in the distribution system
432(1)
Problems in the gathering system
433(1)
References
434(1)
Appendices
435(26)
Appendix A
435(2)
Appendix B
437(2)
Appendix C
439(4)
Appendix D
443(4)
Appendix E
447(8)
Appendix F
455(6)
Index 461
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