The Skills of Helping Individuals, Families, Groups, and Communities






Prefacexxiii

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Prefacexxiii




PART I A Model of the Helping Process

1(50)




An Interactional Approach to Helping

2(32)




Social Work Practice Theory

3(2)




The Client-System Interaction

5(7)




An Interactional Assessment Approach

7(5)




Underlying Assumptions in the Interactional Model

12(9)




Assumption of Symbiosis

12(3)




Assumption of Obstacles in the Engagement

15(1)




The Increasing Complexity of Human Social Systems

16(1)




Divergence in Self-Interest and Social Interest

17(1)




Problems of Interpersonal Communication

18(2)




Assumption of Strength for Change

20(1)




The Social Work Profession: A Historical Perspective

21(7)




The Roots of the Profession

22(2)




The Function of the Social Work Profession

24(4)




Social Work Skill and the Working Relationship

28(3)




The Integration of Personal and Professional Selves

31(2)




Chapter Summary

33(1)




Related Online Content and Activities

33(1)




Human Behavior and the Social Environment

34(17)




Oppression Psychology

35(7)




The Master-Slave Paradigm

36(1)




Indicators of Oppression

37(2)




Alienation and Psychopathology

39(2)




Methods of Defense Against Oppression

41(1)




Resilience Theory and Research

42(7)




Developmental Psychology Theory and Research

43(4)




Resilience and Life-Span Theory

47(1)




More Recent Views on Resilience

48(1)




Implications for Social Work Practice

49(1)




Chapter Summary

50(1)




PART II Social Work With Individuals

51(160)




The Preliminary Phase of Work

52(22)




Communications in Practice

53(2)




Obstacles to Direct Communication

53(1)




Examples of Indirect Communication in Practice

54(1)




The Preliminary Phase: Tuning In to the Self and to the Client

55(6)




Tuning In to the Authority Theme

56(3)




The Impact of Diversity and Culturally Competent Practice

59(2)




Elements of the Working Relationship

61(12)




Affective Versus Intellectual Tuning In

63(2)




Tuning In to One's Own Feelings

65(1)




Different Levels of Tuning In

66(2)




Responding Directly to Indirect Cues

68(5)




Chapter Summary

73(1)




Related Online Content and Activities

73(1)




Beginnings and the Contracting Skills

74(37)




The Dynamics of New Relationships

76(5)




Contracting in First Sessions

81(5)




The Impact of Context on Practice

81(1)




Contracting Example

82(2)




Some Variant Elements in Contracting

84(2)




Research Findings on Contracting

86(1)




Contracting Over Time

86(2)




Contracting With Resistant Clients

88(11)




Models for Assessment in the Beginning Phase

99(3)




Culturally Diverse Practice Examples

102(7)




Working With Mexican Americans

103(1)




Working With African Americans

104(2)




Working With American Indians

106(1)




Working With Canadian Indians

107(1)




Issues in Cross-Racial Practice

107(2)




Education and Training for Culturally Sensitive Practice

109(1)




Chapter Summary

110(1)




Related Online Content and Activities

110(1)




Skills in the Work Phase

111(68)




A Model of the Work Phase Interview

112(1)




Work Phase Summary

113(3)




Preliminary Phase

113(1)




Beginning Phase

113(1)




Middle Phase

113(2)




Endings and Transitions

115(1)




Sessional Tuning-In Skills

116(6)




Tuning In to the Client's Sense of Urgency

116(2)




Tuning In to the Worker's Own Feelings

118(1)




Tuning In to the Meaning of the Client's Struggle

119(1)




Tuning In and the Worker's Realities of Time and Stress

120(1)




Tuning In to the Worker's Own Life Experiences

121(1)




Sessional Contracting Skills

122(3)




Working From the Client's Sense of Urgency

122(2)




Research on Sessional Contracting

124(1)




Impact of the Medical Paradigm on Sessional Contracting

124(1)




Elaborating Skills

125(7)




Containment

125(1)




Moving From the General to the Specific

126(1)




Focused Listening

127(1)




Questioning

128(1)




Reaching Inside of Silences

129(3)




Empathic Skills

132(7)




Reaching for Feelings

135(1)




Displaying Understanding of the Client's Feelings

136(1)




Putting the Client's Feelings Into Words

137(1)




Research on Empathy

138(1)




Sharing the Worker's Feelings

139(8)




Integrating the Personal and the Professional

139(1)




When the Worker Is Angry With the Client

140(2)




A Worker's Investment in the Success of the Client

142(1)




A Worker Sharing Feelings Associated With Life Experiences

143(1)




Boundary Issues in Sharing the Worker's Feelings

143(1)




Sexual Transference and Countertransference Feelings

144(1)




Research on Sharing Feelings

145(2)




Making a Demand for Work

147(7)




Partializing Client Concerns

150(2)




Holding to Focus

152(1)




Checking for Underlying Ambivalence

152(1)




Challenging the Illusion of Work

153(1)




Pointing Out Obstacles

154(7)




Supporting Clients in Taboo Areas

155(3)




Dealing With the Authority Theme

158(3)




Identifying Process and Content Connections

161(4)




Process and Content That Address the Authority Theme

161(1)




Impact of the Worker's Emotions

162(3)




Sharing Data

165(6)




Providing Relevant Data

166(2)




Providing Data in a Way That Is Open to Examination and Challenge

168(1)




Providing Data as a Personal View

169(1)




Ethical Dilemmas in Withholding Data

170(1)




Helping the Client See Life in New Ways

171(1)




Sessional Ending and Transition Skills

172(5)




Summarizing

173(1)




Generalizing

173(1)




Identifying the Next Steps

174(1)




Rehearsing

175(1)




Identifying ``Doorknob'' Communications

176(1)




Chapter Summary

177(1)




Related Online Content and Activities

178(1)




Endings and Transitions

179(32)




The Dynamics and Skills of Endings

181(10)




Flow of Affect in the Ending Phase

181(1)




Timing and the Ending Phase

182(1)




Stages of the Ending Phase

183(1)




Denial

183(2)




Indirect and Direct Expressions of Anger

185(2)




Mourning

187(3)




Trying It On for Size

190(1)




The Farewell-Party Syndrome

190(1)




The Skills of Transitions

191(9)




Identification of Major Learning

191(3)




Identification of Areas for Future Work

194(1)




Synthesizing the Ending Process and Content

195(1)




Transitions to New Experiences and Support Systems

196(4)




Variations on Endings

200(10)




Ending a Relationship That Never Really Began

200(2)




Endings Caused by the Termination of the Worker's Job

202(2)




Endings Caused by the Death of the Client

204(1)




Traumatic Events and Their Impact on a Worker's Practice

204(1)




Suicide on a Caseload

205(3)




Working With a Dying Client

208(2)




Chapter Summary

210(1)




Related Online Content and Activities

210(1)




PART III Social Work With Families

211(70)




The Preliminary and Beginning Phases in Family Practice

212(31)




What Constitutes a Family?

213(1)




Social Work With Families

214(2)




Family Support and Family Counseling

214(1)




Setting-Specific Work With Families

215(1)




The Unique Issues Associated With Family Dynamics

215(1)




Selected Concepts From Family Therapy Theory

216(5)




Psychodynamic

216(1)




Bowen Family Systems Theory

217(1)




Person-Centered

218(1)




Cognitive-Behavioral Family Therapy (CBFT)

219(1)




Multi-Systemic Model (MST)

219(1)




Core Concepts Across Theories

220(1)




The Preliminary Phase---Tuning In to the Family

221(1)




Agency Themes

221(1)




Authority Themes

221(1)




Family Work Themes

221(1)




The Two-Client Concept and the Worker's Role

222(3)




The Beginning Phase: Contracting With the Family

225(6)




The Problem-Oriented First Family Interview for the Beginner

225(2)




First Family Session With an Angry Father

227(1)




Description of the Curakis Family

227(1)




Precipitating Incident

227(1)




History

227(1)




The Interview

228(1)




Discussion of This First Family Session

229(2)




The Impact of Culture and Community

231(11)




Racism, Oppression, and the Native American Family

232(2)




A White Worker with a Native American Family

234(5)




Family Assessment Models

239(3)




Chapter Summary

242(1)




Related Online Content and Activities

242(1)




The Middle and Ending Phases in Family Practice

243(17)




The Middle Phase in Family Practice

243(1)




A Framework for Analyzing a Family Session

244(2)




The Work Phase Model

244(2)




Dealing With Family Secrets

246(2)




A Middle Phase Family Session

248(7)




The Record-of-Service Recording Device

248(7)




The Ending and Transition Phase

255(4)




Goals of the Ending/Transition Phase

255(1)




Emotional Reactions to the Ending Process in Family Counseling

256(1)




Ending the Sessions Before the Worker Believes They Are Finished

257(1)




The Impact of Ignoring Issues of Race, Class, and Culture

257(1)




Ending a Relationship Because of a Change in the Worker's Job Status

258(1)




Chapter Summary

259(1)




Related Online Content and Activities

259(1)




Variations in Family Practice

260(21)




The Impact of Setting and Service

261(1)




The Child Welfare Setting

262(11)




Work With Foster Parents

262(1)




Supporting the Foster Parent as She Supports the Foster Child

263(3)




Foster Parent Anger Over Erratic Visits With Biological Mother

266(2)




Work With Children in Residential Care

268(1)




Social Work Behind the Steering Wheel

268(3)




Work With Teen Parents and Their Families of Origin

271(1)




Children Raising Children: Work With a Teenage Parent

272(1)




Family Practice in the School Setting

273(5)




A High School Freshman With ADD

273(5)




Work With a Single-Parent Family

278(2)




Chapter Summary

280(1)




Related Online Content and Activities

280(1)




PART IV Social Work With Groups

281(244)




The Preliminary Phase in Group Practice: The Group as a Mutual-Aid System

282(37)




The ``Fear-of-Groups'' Syndrome

284(2)




The Dynamics of Mutual Aid

286(9)




Sharing Data

286(1)




The Dialectical Process

287(1)




Discussing a Taboo Area

288(1)




The ``All-in-the-Same-Boat'' Phenomenon

288(1)




Developing a Universal Perspective

289(1)




Mutual Support

290(1)




Mutual Demand

291(1)




Individual Problem-Solving

292(1)




Rehearsal

292(2)




The ``Strength-in-Numbers'' Phenomenon

294(1)




Obstacles to Mutual Aid

295(1)




The Function of the Group Leader

296(1)




Group Formation

297(11)




Preparing for Group Work

297(1)




Work With the Staff System

298(1)




Achieving Consensus on the Service

299(5)




Identifying Group Type and Structure

304(2)




Group Versus Individual Work With Clients

306(1)




Agency or Setting Support for Groups

307(1)




Group Composition, Timing, and Structure

308(6)




Group Member Selection

309(2)




Group Timing

311(2)




Group Structure, Setting, and Rules

313(1)




Work With Prospective Members

314(4)




Worker Skills in the Initial Interviews

315(3)




Chapter Summary

318(1)




Related Online Content and Activities

318(1)




The Beginning Phase in the Group

319(60)




The Dynamics of First Group Sessions

320(1)




The Couples' Group: An Illustration

321(18)




The Initial Work

322(9)




The Work Continues

331(6)




Ending and Transition

337(2)




Variations on First Group Sessions

339(17)




Working With Children and Adolescents

339(1)




Foster Adolescents in a Child Welfare Setting

340(1)




Setting Limits: An Adolescent Acting-Out Boys' Group

340(3)




Impact of Authority: Involuntary Groups

343(1)




Stages-of-Change Model

344(1)




Male Batterers

345(1)




Driving While Intoxicated (DWI)

346(2)




Working With Specific Client Problems

348(1)




Parents of Children With Cerebral Palsy

348(1)




Women With Multiple Sclerosis (MS): Crying in the First Session

349(1)




Impact of the Setting

350(1)




Patient Ward Group in a Hospital

351(1)




Impact of Time

352(1)




Short-Term Group for Single Parents in a Rural Setting

352(4)




Recontracting

356(7)




Recontracting With One's Own Group

357(1)




A Group in a Shelter for Battered Women

357(6)




Coleadership in Groups---Contracting on Purpose

363(8)




A Coleadership Conflict Example: The Social Work Intern and the Substance Abuse Counselor in a Dual-Diagnosis Group

365(6)




The Open-Ended Group

371(3)




Hospital Group on a Gynecological Ward

372(1)




Bringing a New Member Into an AIDS Group

373(1)




The Single-Session Group

374(3)




Information Group: Foster Parent Recruitment

375(1)




Informal Event Group: Remembering the Holocaust

376(1)




Chapter Summary

377(1)




Related Online Content and Activities

378(1)




The Work Phase in the Group

379(42)




The False Dichotomy Between the Individual and the Group

380(1)




Sessional Contracting in the Group

380(12)




Reaching for an Individual's Communication in the Group

381(1)




Illustration from the 19th Session of the Married Couples Group

382(3)




The Lost and Found Group: Children Grieving the Loss of a Family Member

385(1)




Friends, Lovers, and Relatives: Grieving the Loss of a Person With AIDS

386(1)




Open-Ended Group in a VA Hospital on the Anniversary of 9/11

387(1)




Reaching for the Group Response to the Individual

388(1)




Day Treatment Group for Persons With Chronic Mental Illness

388(1)




Reaching for the Work When Obstacles Threaten

389(1)




Teenager in a Residential Center, Raising a Difficult Subject

390(1)




Mothers of Children Diagnosed with Hyperactivity

391(1)




Mothers of Sixth-Grade Boys Who Underachieve in School

392(1)




The Work Phase in a Group Session

392(10)




Helping the Group Work Over Time

393(1)




Puerto Rican Pregnant Teens

393(6)




Focusing the Group on Problem-Solving Mutual Aid

399(1)




Adult Group Dealing With Separation and Depression

399(3)




Sessional Endings and Transitions

402(2)




Mothers of Children Diagnosed as Hyperactive

402(2)




Activity Groups

404(15)




The Functions of Shared Activity in Mutual Aid Groups

404(1)




Two Categories of Activity Groups

405(1)




Children Dealing With Their Parents' Separation and Divorce

406(11)




Vietnamese Immigrant Women

417(2)




Chapter Summary

419(1)




Related Online Content and Activities

419(2)




Working With the Individual and the Group

421(79)




The Concept of Role in a Dynamic System

422(2)




The Impact of Oppression on Social Role

422(1)




Formal and Informal Roles in the Group

423(1)




The Scapegoat

424(8)




A Scapegoating Example

425(1)




African American and Hispanic Teenage Girls in a School

425(7)




Dealing With the Scapegoating Pattern

432(1)




The ``Deviant'' Member

432(5)




Extreme Versus Mild Deviance

433(1)




Foster Parent Recruitment Group Example

433(1)




Foster Parent Support Group

434(1)




Reaching for the Underlying Message of Deviant Behavior

434(1)




Group for Children Having Trouble in School

434(1)




Deviant Behavior as a Functional Role

435(1)




Counseling Group at a Psychiatric Hospital

435(1)




Opening a Discussion of the Group's Functioning

435(1)




Deepening Discussion in a Parenting Group

436(1)




The Internal Leader

437(3)




Dealing With Acting-Out Adolescents: A Community Center Group

437(3)




The Gatekeeper

440(2)




The Defensive Member

442(9)




A Defensive Father in a Parents' Group

442(2)




Denial in a Living-With-Cancer Group

444(7)




The Quiet Member

451(2)




Worker Strategies

451(1)




The Member Who Is Afraid to Speak

452(1)




The Member Who Feels Left Out

452(1)




The Monopolizer

453(2)




The Group as an Organism

455(2)




Developmental Tasks for the Group

457(13)




Dealing With the Relationship to the Leader

458(1)




Who Owns the Group? Issues of Control

458(1)




The Couples' Group and the Authority Theme

458(2)




The Group Leader as the Outsider

460(1)




Parents of Hyperactive Children and the Authority Theme

460(1)




The Group Leader's Demand for Work

461(1)




Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Vietnam Veterans Group

461(7)




The Group Leader's Limitations

468(1)




The Group Leader as a Caring and Giving Person

469(1)




Dealing With the Relationships Among Members

470(28)




College Student Counseling Group and the Intimacy Theme

471(2)




Intimacy and the Relational Model

473(1)




Paradox

474(1)




Connection

474(1)




Resonance

475(1)




A Support Group for Women With Cancer

475(6)




Developing a Culture for Work

481(1)




Parents of Hyperactive Children: Accepting Difficult Feelings

482(4)




Married Couples: Legitimizing the Expression of Anger

486(1)




Married Couples: Dealing With Sexual Taboos

487(1)




White Workers With African American Inner-City High School Girls: From ``Anger Management'' to Mutual Aid Support

488(7)




Residential Center for Young Men in the Criminal Justice System

495(1)




Developing a Structure for Work

496(1)




An Outpatient Group for Young Recovering Addicts

496(2)




Chapter Summary

498(1)




Related Online Content and Activities

498(2)




Endings and Transitions With Groups

500(25)




Ending and Transition Phase in Groups

501(3)




Denial

501(1)




Anger

501(1)




Mourning

502(1)




Trying It on for Size

502(1)




Farewell-Party Syndrome

503(1)




Worker Strategies With Regard to Ending

503(1)




Worker Strategies With Regard to Transition

504(1)




Group Illustrations

504(19)




Patients With Multiple Sclerosis

505(2)




Children's Group in an Elementary School

507(2)




Male Batterers' Group

509(2)




Female Worker's Last Session With Men in a Correctional Setting

511(1)




Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Endings Over Time

512(7)




A Termination Session: The Worker Leaving the Group in a Residential Setting

519(4)




Chapter Summary

523(1)




Related Online Content and Activities

524(1)




PART V Macro Social Work Practice: Impacting the Agency/Setting and the Community, and Effecting Social Change

525(94)




Professional Impact and Helping Clients Negotiate the System

526(47)




Macro-Practice

527(2)




A Social Systems Approach

527(2)




The Individual-System Interaction

529(1)




Mediating the Individual-System Engagement

530(24)




Native Worker and a White Teacher

531(2)




Work With the School System When a Student is Suspended

533(6)




Family Court Group for Parents of Truant Children: Race, Class, and Conflict With Teachers in a School

539(5)




Work With a Psychiatrist in a Hospital Setting

544(5)




Confrontation, Social Pressure, and Advocacy

549(1)




Finding Housing for an Overwhelmed Client: A Canadian Example

550(4)




Professional Impact on the System

554(3)




Factors That Make Professional Impact Difficult

556(1)




System Resistance and the Pre-Contemplation Stage

556(1)




Fear of Retribution

556(1)




Stereotyped Views of Administration

557(1)




From Individual Problems to Social Action

557(4)




Illustrations of Agency Change

558(1)




Hospital Emergency Room Service

558(2)




Rehabilitation Institution for Paraplegics

560(1)




Sexuality in a Home for the Aged

561(1)




Professional Impact and Interstaff Relationships

561(8)




The Agency as a Social System

562(1)




Problems Associated With ``Process-Focused'' Staff Meetings

563(1)




Dealing With Process in Relation to a Problem or Issue

563(1)




Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Work With a Client

564(1)




Interdepartmental Communications in a Large System

565(4)




Impact on Relations With Staff at Other Agencies

569(3)




Emergency Services Workers in Conflict With Hospital Staff

569(2)




The ``Too Many Cooks'' Problem

571(1)




Externalizing the Problem: It's Always the Other Person's Fault

571(1)




Chapter Summary

572(1)




Related Online Content and Activities

572(1)




Social Work Practice in the Community---Philosophy, Models, and Principles

573(11)




The Development of Community Social Work Practice

574(1)




Empowerment-Oriented and Progressive Practice Models

574(1)




Principles of Effective Community Organizing

575(1)




Community Organizing Philosophy and Models

576(5)




Grassroots Community Organizing

577(1)




Community Organizing Around a Specific Issue

578(1)




Rural-Based Community Organization Practice

579(1)




The Use of the Internet in Community Practice

580(1)




The Neighborhood as Community

581(1)




The Role of the Worker in the Community

582(1)




Chapter Summary

583(1)




Related Online Content and Activities

583(1)




Community Organization and Social Action Practice

584(35)




The Phases of Work in Community Organizing Practice

585(28)




The Preliminary and Beginning Phase of Community Practice

585(1)




Contracting: A Tenants' Group in Public Housing

585(3)




The SNCC: Starting Where the Client (Community) Is

588(1)




The Middle or Work Phase of Practice

588(1)




Structure and Maintenance: A Citizen's Antipoverty Action Group

588(3)




The Deviant Member: Community-Based Citizens' Advisory Board

591(1)




Mothers on Welfare in Public Housing: Negotiating the Environment

592(10)




Mobilizing Adolescent Peer Leaders in the Community

602(5)




The Ending/Transition Phase of Practice: The Milieu as Community

607(1)




Patient Empowerment Through a Newspaper in a VA Hospital

607(6)




Social Workers and Social Action

613(4)




Social Action in the Community

614(3)




Advocacy Groups and Political Activity

617(1)




Chapter Summary

617(1)




Related Online Content and Activities

618(1)




PART VI Practice Models, Evidence-Based Practice, Agency Policies, Ethics, Legislation, and the Courts

619(60)




Additional Social Work Perspectives and Evidence-Based Practice

620(35)




Solution-Focused Practice

621(2)




Major Assumptions on the Nature of the Helping Relationship

621(1)




Defining Techniques

622(1)




Radical Social Work Practice

623(1)




Feminist Practice

624(3)




Historical Roots

624(1)




Feminist Practice Typology

624(1)




``Take Back the Night'' March: An Example

625(1)




The New Psychology of Women

626(1)




Feminist Group Work

627(1)




Social Work as Psychotherapy

627(1)




Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

627(4)




Some Cautions Related to Models From Other Disciplines

629(2)




Evolving Models of Practice

631(14)




Religion and Spirituality

631(1)




Definitions

632(1)




Interventions: The Spiritual/Religious Autobiography

633(1)




Practice in Response to Trauma and Extreme Events

634(1)




Crisis Theory and Crisis Intervention

635(1)




Crisis Intervention Stress Management

636(1)




Trauma Groups

637(1)




Forgiveness Exercises

638(1)




Impact of Disaster on the Professional

639(1)




Working With Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, and Transgender Clients

639(1)




Definitions

640(1)




The Oppression Perspective

640(2)




The Strengths Perspective for LGBT Clients

642(1)




Strategies for LGBT Sensitive Practice: The School Social Worker Example

642(2)




Summary of Other Models and Evolving Models of Practice

644(1)




Evidence-Based Practice

645(3)




An Illustration: Motivational Interviewing

647(1)




Evaluation of Practice: Process and Outcomes

648(6)




Process Evaluation: The Record of Service

649(2)




Outcome Evaluation: The Single-System Research Design

651(1)




The Scientist-Practitioner Model

652(2)




Chapter Summary

654(1)




Related Online Content and Activities

654(1)




The Impact of the Agency Culture, Ethics, Legislation, and Evaluation

655(24)




The Agency Culture

656(2)




Values and Ethics in Social Work Practice

658(9)




Definitions of Values and Ethics

658(1)




National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics

659(1)




Historical Context

659(2)




Ethical Problems and Dilemmas

661(1)




Factors That Affect Ethical Decision-Making

662(2)




Values and Ethics in the Professional Literature

664(1)




Guidelines for Practice in Family and Group Work

664(3)




Social Changes and Their Impact on Ethical Practice

667(3)




Managed Care

667(2)




End-of-Life Decisions

669(1)




The Impact of Legislation and the Court

670(6)




Licensing and the Social Work Profession

671(1)




Confidentiality and Privileged Communications

671(3)




Informed Consent

674(1)




The Duty to Warn

675(1)




Chapter Summary

676(1)




Related Online Content and Activities

677(2)
Glossary679(10)
References689(8)
Index of Case Examples697(4)
Name Index701(3)
Subject Index704

Fakta