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Bokkilden Software Estimation Best Practices, Tools and Techniques - Murali Chemuturi - Innbundet (9781604270242)
Software Estimation Best Practices, Tools and Techniques - Murali Chemuturi Innbundet
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J Ross Publishing
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Innbundet
Språk:
Engelsk
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320
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23 x 15 cm
ISBN:
9781604270242

Software Estimation Best Practices, Tools and Techniques

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This is a practical and accessible guide to software estimation for anyone involved in software development. Covering all facets of software estimation, this new volume provides a detailed explanation of the various tools and methods available in estimating software size, development effort, cost and schedule - including a comprehensive explanation of Test Effort Estimation. Written in a clear and practical manner, "Software Estimation" is a comprehensive resource presenting estimation best practices, guidance on the appropriate methods for different types of project, and advice on how to avoid common pitfalls.

Software Estimation Best Practices, Tools and Techniques

Foreword xi
Preface xiii
About the Author xvii
Acknowledgments xix
Web Added Value™ xxi
Chapter 1: Software Estimation 1
Background
1
What Is Software Estimation?
2
Why Is Software Estimation Important?
4
When Is Software Estimation Carried Out?
4
Traditional Cost Estimation
5
Summary
8
Chapter 2: Paradoxes of Software Estimation 9
The Paradox of Why Software Estimation Is Performed
10
The Paradox of Software Size
11
The Paradox of Software Productivity
12
The Paradox of Offering Fixed Bids
14
The Paradox of Actual versus Estimated Values
15
The Paradox of Uncertainty
17
Summary
19
Chapter 3: Software Estimation from Scratch 21
Breaking the Project Down into Components and Constructing the Work Breakdown Structure
22
Complexity of Components
25
Appropriate Software-Sizing Technique
26
Applying the Productivity Figure
26
Uncertainty in Estimation
27
The Impact of Project Execution on Estimation
29
Summary
29
Chapter 4: Software Estimation by Project Type 31
Classification of Software Projects
32
Projects Based on the Software Development Life Cycle
33
Full Life Cycle Projects
33
Partial Life Cycle Projects
33
Projects Based on How a Software Solution Is Arrived at
35
Fresh Development of Entire Software from Scratch
35
Software Implementation and Customization of a Commercial Off-the-Shelf Product
35
Porting of Software
36
Migration of Software
37
Conversion Projects
39
Software Maintenance Projects
39
Defect Fixing
40
Operational Support
41
Fixing Odd Behavior
42
Software Modification
42
Functional Expansion
43
Agile Software Development Projects
44
Web Projects
45
Summary
47
Chapter 5: Approaches to Software Estimation 49
Ad Hoc Approach
50
Process-Driven Approach
50
Gross Estimates Approach
51
Detailed Estimates Approach
52
Software Size Estimates
52
Software Development Effort Estimates
53
The Delphi Technique for Software Estimation
54
Selection of Experts
54
Briefing the Experts
55
Collation of Estimates Received from the Experts
55
Convergence of Estimates and Finalization
56
Merits and Demerits of the Delphi Technique
56
Analogy-Based Software Estimation
57
Selection of Similar Past Projects
58
Shortlisting of Past Projects
60
Analogy-Based Estimation in Software Maintenance
64
Merits and Demerits of Analogy-Based Estimation
64
Summary
65
Chapter 6: Software Size Estimation 67
Measuring the Size of What, Exactly?
67
Approaches to Software Size Measurement
68
Concerns with Software Size Estimation
70
Lines of Code
71
Merits and Demerits of Lines of Code
73
Function Points
73
External Input
75
External Output
76
External Inquiry
77
Internal Logical File
78
External Interface File
78
Obtaining the Unadjusted Function Point Count
79
Value Adjustment Factor
80
Obtaining the Adjusted Function Point Count
82
Merits and Demerits of Function Points
82
Use Case Points
84
Merits and Demerits of Use Case Points
87
Object Points
88
Merits and Demerits of Object Points
89
Mark II Function Point Analysis
90
Merits and Demerits of Mark II Function Point Analysis
94
Summary
94
Chapter 7: Software Size Units 97
Definition of Software Size Unit
98
Procedure for Software Size Estimation Using Software Size Units
99
Software Development Effort Estimation from Software Size Units
100
How to Obtain Productivity Figures
103
Frequently Asked Questions about Software Size Units Computation
104
Merits and Demerits of Software Size Units
105
Summary
105
Chapter 8: Software Estimation—Complexity or Density? 107
The Paradox of Complexity vis-a-vis Size
108
Density, Not Complexity
112
Summary
113
Chapter 9: Software Development Effort Estimation 115
Effort Estimation Using Software Size
115
The Present Scenario
115
The Suggested Scenario
117
Influence of Software Development Methodologies on Software Estimation
118
Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO)
120
Basic COCOMO
120
Intermediate COCOMO
121
Advanced COCOMO
122
COCOMO II
123
Merits and Demerits of COCOMO
123
Task-Based Estimation
124
Arriving at Software Development Effort Using Task-Based Estimation
128
Merits and Demerits of Task-Based Estimation
133
Summary
133
Chapter 10: Productivity for Software Estimators 135
Productivity
135
Concerns with Productivity
136
Standard Time
137
The Productivity Path
140
Classification of Software Development Activities
142
How Do We Arrive at Productivity?
144
Empirical Methods
144
Work Measurement
145
Capacity vis-à-vis Productivity
149
My Recommendation for How to Determine Productivity
150
Summary
150
Chapter 11: Schedule Estimation for Software Development Projects 153
Initial Work Breakdown Structure
154
Work Breakdown Structure with Predecessors Defined
155
Work Breakdown Structure with Initial Dates
157
Work Breakdown Structure with Resource Allocation
159
Scheduling in Practice
161
Graphic Representation of Schedules
161
Summary
162
Chapter 12: Software Development Cost Estimation 165
Pricing Models
165
Cost of Effort
169
Summary
172
Chapter 13: Test Size and Effort Estimation 173
Testing Basics
173
Testing Scenarios
174
Project Testing/Embedded Testing
174
Product Testing
175
The "How" of Testing
177
Test Strategy
179
Test Estimation
180
Approaches to Test Effort Estimation
181
Software-Size-Based Estimation
181
Test-Case-Enumeration-Based Estimation
183
Task (Activity)-Based Estimation
184
Issues in Sizing Testing Projects
186
Who Needs Test Size Estimation?
188
Sizing a Testing Project
189
Weights
189
Merits and Demerits of Software Test Unit Estimation
191
Final Words about Test Effort Estimation
192
Summary
193
Chapter 14: Pitfalls and Best Practices in Software Estimation 195
Pitfalls in Software Estimation
196
Inexperienced Estimators
196
Lack of Training
197
Lack of Historical Data
198
Inadequate Duration for Estimation
199
Nonconformance to Reviews
199
Not Measuring the Software Size of the Software Product Delivered
200
Lack of Causal Analysis of Variances
200
Usage of a Single Productivity Figure
201
Absence of Software Estimation Tools
201
Over- or Underestimation
202
Best Practices in Software Estimation
203
Organizational Support for Software Estimation
204
Software Estimation Process
208
Process
208
Final Words on the Software Estimation Process
213
Presentation of Software Estimates
213
Summary
216
Chapter 15: Criteria for Selecting a Software Estimation Tool 217
Units of Measure for Software Size
217
A Common Unit of Measure for Software Size
218
Software Cost Estimation
218
Scheduling the Software Project
219
Estimation for Partial Life Cycle Projects
220
Usability
220
Usage of Popular Techniques
221
Auditability
221
Reporting Capability
222
Estimator Productivity
222
Summary
222
Appendix A: Variance Analysis between Actual and Estimated Values 225
Appendix B: Project Types and Suitable Software Estimation Techniques 237
Appendix C: Estimation Sheet for Delphi Technique 239
Appendix D: Deriving Productivity from Past Projects 243
Appendix E: Suggested Phases and Tasks for Task-Based Estimation 251
Appendix F: Sample Process Definition for Software Estimation 259
Appendix G: Estimation Presentation Template 265
Appendix H: Estimation Request Note Template 269
Appendix I: Quick Reference 273
Appendix J: Abbreviations 281
Index 285
Biografi
This is a practical and accessible guide to software estimation for anyone involved in software development. Covering all facets of software estimation, this new volume provides a detailed explanation of the various tools and methods available in estimating software size, development effort, cost an... Les mer
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