Mechatronics

Electronic Control Systems in Mechanical and Electrical Engineering

Mechatronics

The integration of electronic engineering, mechanical engineering, control and computer engineering - Mechatronics - lies at the heart of the innumerable gadgets, processes and technology without which modern life would seem impossible. Les mer
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Mechatronics

The integration of electronic engineering, mechanical engineering, control and computer engineering - Mechatronics - lies at the heart of the innumerable gadgets, processes and technology without which modern life would seem impossible. From auto-focus cameras to car engine management systems, and from state-of-the-art robots to the humble washing machine, Mechatronics has a hand in them all.

Preface xi
Acknowledgements xiii
I. Introduction 1
1. Introducing mechatronics 3
Chapter objectives 3
1.1 What is mechatronics? 3
1.2 The design process 5
1.3 Systems 6
1.4 Measurement systems 8
1.5 Control systems 9
1.6 Programmable logic controller 21
1.7 Examples of mechatronic systems 22
Summary 26
Problems 27
II. Sensors and signal conditioning 29
2. Sensors and transducers 31
Chapter objectives 31
2.1 Sensors and transducers 31
2.2 Performance terminology 32
2.3 Displacement, position and proximity 37
2.4 Velocity and motion 54
2.5 Force 57
2.6 Fluid pressure 57
2.7 Liquid flow 61
2.8 Liquid level 62
2.9 Temperature 63
2.10 Light sensors 69
2.11 Selection of sensors 70
2.12 Inputting data by switches 71
Summary 74
Problems 75
3. Signal conditioning 78
Chapter objectives 78
3.1 Signal conditioning 78
3.2 The operational amplifier 79
3.3 Protection 90
3.4 Filtering 91
3.5 Wheatstone bridge 92
3.6 Pulse modulation 97
3.7 Problems with signals 98
3.8 Power transfer 100
Summary 101
Problems 101
4. Digital signals 103
Chapter objectives 103
4.1 Digital signals 103
4.2 Analogue and digital signals 103
4.3 Digital-to-analogue and analogue-to-digital
converters 107
4.4 Multiplexers 113
4.5 Data acquisition 114
4.6 Digital signal processing 116
4.7 Digital signal communications 118
Summary 119
Problems 120
5. Digital logic 121
Chapter objectives 121
5.1 Digital logic 121
5.2 Logic gates 122
5.3 Applications of logic gates 130
5.4 Sequential logic 135
Summary 143
Problems 143
6. Data presentation systems 146
Chapter objectives 146
6.1 Displays 146
6.2 Data presentation elements 147
6.3 Magnetic recording 152
6.4 Optical recording 157
6.5 Displays 157
6.6 Data acquisition systems 162
6.7 Measurement systems 166
6.8 Testing and calibration 169
Summary 171
Problems 172
III. Actuation 175
7. Pneumatic and hydraulic actuation
systems 177
Chapter objectives 177
7.1 Actuation systems 177
7.2 Pneumatic and hydraulic systems 177
7.3 Directional control valves 181
7.4 Pressure control valves 186
7.5 Cylinders 188
7.6 Servo and proportional control valves 192
7.7 Process control valves 193
Summary 198
Problems 198
8. Mechanical actuation systems 201
Chapter objectives 201
8.1 Mechanical systems 201
8.2 Types of motion 202
8.3 Kinematic chains 204
8.4 Cams 208
8.5 Gears 210
8.6 Ratchet and pawl 214
8.7 Belt and chain drives 214
8.8 Bearings 216
8.9 Electro-mechanical linear actuators 218
Summary 219
Problems 220
9. Electrical actuation systems 222
Chapter objectives 222
9.1 Electrical systems 222
9.2 Mechanical switches 222
9.3 Solid-state switches 224
9.4 Solenoids 231
9.5 Direct current motors 232
9.6 Alternating current motors 241
9.7 Stepper motors 243
9.8 Direct current servomotors 250
9.9 Motor selection 251
Summary 255
Problems 255
IV. Microprocessor systems 257
10. Microprocessors and microcontrollers 259
Chapter objectives 259
10.1 Control 259
10.2 Microprocessor systems 259
10.3 Microcontrollers 270
10.4 Applications 296
10.5 Programming 297
Summary 300
Problems 300
11. Assembly language 301
Chapter objectives 301
11.1 Languages 301
11.2 Assembly language programs 302
11.3 Instruction sets 304
11.4 Subroutines 317
11.5 Look-up tables 321
11.6 Embedded systems 324
Summary 327
Problems 328
12. C language 329
Chapter objectives 329
12.1 Why C? 329
12.2 Program structure 329
12.3 Branches and loops 336
12.4 Arrays 340
12.5 Pointers 342
12.6 Program development 343
12.7 Examples of programs 345
12.8 Arduino programs 348
Summary 352
Problems 352
13. Input/output systems 354
Chapter objectives 354
13.1 Interfacing 354
13.2 Input/outp

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