Green Energy to Sustainability: Strategies for Global Industries

Alain A. Vertes (Redaktør) ; Nasib Qureshi (Redaktør) ; Hans P. Blaschek (Redaktør) ; Hideaki Yukawa (Redaktør)

Reviews the latest advances in biofuel manufacturing technologies and discusses the deployment of other renewable energy for transportation


Aimed at providing an interface useful to business and scientific managers, this book focuses on the key challenges that still impede the realization of the billion-ton renewable fuels vision. Les mer
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Reviews the latest advances in biofuel manufacturing technologies and discusses the deployment of other renewable energy for transportation


Aimed at providing an interface useful to business and scientific managers, this book focuses on the key challenges that still impede the realization of the billion-ton renewable fuels vision. It places great emphasis on a global view of the topic, reviewing deployment and green energy technology in different countries across Africa, Asia, South America, the EU, and the USA. It also integrates scientific, technological, and business development perspectives to highlight the key developments that are necessary for the global replacement of fossil fuels with green energy solutions.


Green Energy to Sustainability: Strategies for Global Industries examines the most recent developments in biofuel manufacturing technologies in light of business, financial, value chain, and supply chain concerns. It also covers the use of other renewable energy sources like solar energy for transportation and proposes a view of the challenges over the next two to five decades, and how these will deeply modify the industrial world in the third millennium. The coming of age of electric vehicles is also looked at, as is the impact of their deployment on the biomass to biofuels value chain.





Offers extensive updates on the field of green energy for global industries

Covers the structure of the energy business; chemicals and diesel from biomass; ethanol and butanol; hydrogen and methane; and more

Provides an expanded focus on the next generation of energy technologies

Reviews the latest advances in biofuel manufacturing technologies

Integrates scientific, technological and business perspectives

Highlights important developments needed for replacing fossil fuels with green energy



Green Energy to Sustainability: Strategies for Global Industries will appeal to academic researchers working on the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks and those working in green and sustainable chemistry, and chemical/process engineering. It is also an excellent textbook for courses in bioprocessing technology, renewable resources, green energy, and sustainable chemistry.

Fakta

Innholdsfortegnelse

About the Editors xxi


List of Contributors xxv


Foreword xxxi


Preface xxxiii


Part I Structure of the Energy Business 1


1 Economic Growth and the Global Energy Demand 3
Jurgen Scheffran, Miriam Felkers and Rebecca Froese


1.1 Historical Context and Relationship Between Energy and Development 3


1.2 Conceptual Framework for Pathways of Energy Use 6


1.3 World Population Trends and Prospects 7


1.4 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Economic Growth 8


1.5 Global Energy Development 11


1.6 Global Emissions of Greenhouse Gases 14


1.7 Linkages Between Kaya Factors 16


1.8 Development of Energy Investment 28


1.9 Conditions for Energy Transition and Decarbonization 31


1.10 Perspectives 37


Acknowledgments 38


References 38


2 The Energy Mix in Japan Post-Fukushima 45
Seiji Nakagame


2.1 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions by Japan 45


2.2 Energy Dependence 46


2.3 The Energy Policy of Japan 48


2.4 Paris Agreement 49


2.5 Prospective Energy Demand 50


2.6 Improvement in Energy Efficiency 50


2.7 Reduction of CO2 Emission in Electric Generation 51


2.8 Development of New Technologies for Decreasing GHG Emissions 51


2.9 Production and Use of Bioethanol in Japan 51


2.10 Production and Use of Hydrocarbons in Japan 52


2.11 Production and Use of Hydrogen in Japan 52


2.12 Contributions of the Japanese Government to Fundamental Research and Development 52


2.13 Perspectives 53


References 53


3 Green Energy in Africa, Asia, and South America 57
Daniel de Castro Assumpcao, Marcelo Hamaguchi, Jose Dilcio Rocha and Adriano P. Mariano


3.1 Introduction 57


3.2 South America 58


3.3 Africa 62


3.4 Southeast Asia 66


3.5 China 69


3.6 Global Perspectives 72


References 72


4 The Development of Solar Energy Generation Technologies and Global Production Capabilities 77
F. John Hay and N. Ianno


4.1 Introduction 77


4.2 Sunlight and Photosynthesis 78


4.3 Photovoltaic Devices 79


4.4 Overview of Solar Photovoltaic Applications 82


4.5 Perspectives 83


References 84


5 Recent Trends, Opportunities and Challenges of Sustainable Aviation Fuel 85
Libing Zhang, Terri L. Butler and Bin Yang


5.1 Introduction 85


5.2 Overview of the Jet Fuel Market 86


5.3 Assessment of Environmental Policy and Economic Factors Affecting the Aviation Industry 93


5.4 Current Activities Around Biojet in the Aviation Industry 98


5.5 Challenges of Future Biojet Fuel Development 100


5.6 Perspectives 104


Acknowledgments 105


References 105


6 The Environmental Impact of Pollution Prevention and Other Sustainable Development Strategies Implemented by the Automotive Manufacturing Industry 111
Sandra D. Gaona, Cheryl Keenan, Cyril Vallet, Lawrence Reichle and Stephen C. DeVito


6.1 Introduction 111


6.2 Overview of the Automotive Manufacturing Industry 112


6.3 Chemicals and Chemical Waste in Automotive Manufacturing 114


6.4 Pollution Prevention in Automotive Manufacturing 121


6.5 Perspectives 131


Disclaimer 134


References 134


7 The Global Demand for Biofuels and Biotechnology-Derived Commodity Chemicals: Technologies, Markets, and Challenges 137
Stephen R. Hughes and Marjorie A. Jones


7.1 Introduction 137


7.2 Overview of Global Energy Demand 137


7.3 Petroleum Demand and Petroleum Products for Potential Replacement by Bioproducts 140


7.4 Role of Biofuels and Biobased Chemicals in Renewable Energy Demand 143


7.5 Achieving Petroleum Replacement with Biobased Fuels and Chemicals 145


7.6 Projections of Global Demand for Biobased Fuels and Chemicals 149


7.7 Potential Impacts on Price of Transportation Fuels and Chemicals Assuming Various Scenarios of World Economic Growth 151


7.8 Projection of Energy-Related CO2 Emissions With or Without Remediation Technology 151


7.9 Government Impact on Demand for Biofuels and Biobased Chemicals 152


7.10 Perspectives 154


References 155


Part II Chemicals and Transportation Fuels from Biomass 157


8 Sustainable Platform Chemicals from Biomass 159
Ankita Juneja and Vijay Singh


8.1 Introduction 159


8.2 2-Carbon 161


8.3 3-Carbon 163


8.4 4-Carbon 166


8.5 5-Carbon 169


8.6 6-Carbon 171


8.7 Perspectives 174


References 175


9 Biofuels from Microalgae and Seaweeds: Potentials of Industrial Scale Production 185
Licheng Peng, Freeman Lan and Christopher Q. Lan


9.1 Introduction 185


9.2 Biofuels 186


9.3 Biofuels from Microalgae and Seaweeds 191


9.4 Recent Developments in Algae Processing Technologies 195


9.5 Potential for Industrial Scale Production 200


9.6 Progresses in the Commercial Production of Alga-Based Biofuels 205


9.7 Perspectives 209


References 210


10 Advanced Fermentation Technologies: Conversion of Biomass to Ethanol by Organisms Other than Yeasts, a Case for Escherichia coli 219
K. T. Shanmugam, Lorraine P. Yomano, Sean W. York and Lonnie O. Ingram


10.1 Introduction 219


10.2 Zymomonas mobilis 222


10.3 Escherichia coli 223


10.4 Osmotic Stress of High Sugar Concentration 227


10.5 Inhibitor-Tolerant Ethanologenic E. coli 227


10.6 Engineering Bacterial Biocatalysts Other than E. coli for the Production of Ethanol Using the PDC/ADH Pathway 229


10.7 Ethanol Production by Non-PDC Pathways 230


10.8 Partition of Carbon at the Pyruvate Node 231


10.9 Other Metabolic Pathways that Contribute to Ethanol Production 231


10.10 Perspectives 232


Acknowledgements 232


References 233


11 Clostridia and Process Engineering for Energy Generation 239
Adriano P. Mariano, Danilo S. Braz, Henrique C. A. Venturelli and Nasib Qureshi


11.1 Introduction 239


11.2 Recent Technological Advances 241


11.3 Economic Modelling and Case Study 246


11.4 Perspectives 263


Acknowledgements 263


References 264


12 Fuel Ethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Materials Using Recombinant Yeasts 269
Stephen R. Hughes and Marjorie A. Jones


12.1 Review of Current Fuel Ethanol Production 269


12.2 Evolution of Cost of Cellulosic Ethanol Production 272


12.3 Technological Opportunities to Reduce Cellulosic Ethanol Production Costs 277


12.4 Perspectives: Approaches to Optimize the Use of Lignocellulosic and Waste Materials as Feedstocks 279


References 281


13 Enzymes for Cellulosic Biomass Hydrolysis and Saccharification 283
Elmar M. Villota, Ziyu Dai, Yanpin Lu and Bin Yang


13.1 Introduction 283


13.2 Glycosyl Hydrolases: General Structure and Mechanism 286


13.3 The Cellulase Enzyme System 289


13.4 The Hemicellulase Enzyme System 295


13.5 Microorganisms for Biomass Hydrolysis 299


13.6 Perspectives 308


Acknowledgement 309


References 309


14 Life Cycle Assessment of Biofuels and Green Commodity Chemicals 327
Mairi J. Black, Onesmus Mwabonje, Aiduan Li Borrion and Aurelia Karina Hillary


14.1 Introduction 327


14.2 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) 328


14.3 The Origin and Principles of Life Cycle Assessment 329


14.4 Developing a Life Cycle Assessment 329


14.5 Scope of the Life Cycle Assessment: Attributional verses Consequential 331


14.6 Biofuels and Green Commodity Chemicals 332


14.7 Feedstocks for Biofuels 332


14.8 Conversion of Feedstock 333


14.9 Supply Chain and Logistics 335


14.10 Using LCA as a Tool to Assess GHG Emissions and Other Impacts Associated with Bioethanol Production and Supply 335


14.11 Discussion on the Suitability of LCA 336


14.12 Perspectives: Moving Forward with the LCA Concept 348


References 349


Part III Hydrogen and Methane 355


15 Biotechnological Production of Fuel Hydrogen and Its Market Deployment 357
Carolina Zampol Lazaro, Emrah Sagir and Patrick C. Hallenbeck


15.1 Introduction 357


15.2 Hydrogen Production Through Dark Fermentation 358


15.3 Hydrogen Production Through Photofermentation 370


15.4 Hydrogen Production by Combined Systems 370


15.5 Perspectives 379


Acknowledgements 383


References 383


16 Deployment of Biogas Production Technologies in Emerging Countries 395
Guangyin Zhen, Xueqin Lu, Xiaohui Wang, Shaojuan Zheng, Jianhui Wang, Zhongxiang Zhi, Lianghu Su, Kaiqin Xu, Takuro Kobayashi, Gopalakrishnan Kumar and Youcai Zhao


16.1 Introduction 395


16.2 Types of Feedstock 397


16.3 Pretreatment Technologies of Anaerobic Digestion Feedstocks 404


16.4 Full-scale Implementation Status of Anaerobic Digestion in Developing Countries 413


16.5 Perspectives 416


References 416


17 Hydrogen Production by Algae 425
Tunc Catal and Halil Kavakli


17.1 Importance of Hydrogen Production 425


17.2 Hydrogen Producing Microorganisms 427


17.3 Hydrogen Producing Algae (Macro-Micro) Species 428


17.4 Production of Biohydrogen Through Fermentation 431


17.5 Technologies (Solar Algae Fuel Cell/Microbial Fuel Cell) 433


17.6 Possibility of Commercial Production of Hydrogen 434


17.7 Perspectives and Future Implications of Algae in Biotechnology 437


References 438


18 Production and Utilization of Methane Biogas as Renewable Fuel 447
Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale, Jeyapraksh Damaraja, Sutha Shobana, Rijuta Ganesh Saratale, Sivagurunathan Periyasamy, Gunagyin Zhen and Gopalakrishnan Kumar


18.1 Introduction 447


18.2 Anaerobic Digestion 448


18.3 Mechanism of Anaerobic Digestion 449


18.4 Significant Factors Influencing Anaerobic Digestion 455


18.5 Strategies Applied to Enhance Microalgae Methane Biogas Production 456


18.6 Utilization of Methane Biogas as a Renewable Fuel 458


18.7 Perspectives 459


References 459


Part IV Perspectives 465


19 Integrated Biorefineries for the Production of Bioethanol, Biodiesel, and Other Commodity Chemicals 467
Pedro F Souza Filho and Mohammad J Taherzadeh


19.1 Introduction 467


19.2 Types of Biorefineries 468


19.3 Biorefinery Platforms 471


19.4 Integrated Biorefineries 472


19.5 Coproducts 475


19.6 Integrating Ethanol and Biodiesel Refineries 480


19.7 Economical Aspects 482


19.8 Perspectives 484


References 484


20 Lignocellulosic Crops as Sustainable Raw Materials for Bioenergy 489
Emiliano Maletta and Carlos Hernandez Diaz-Ambrona


20.1 Introduction 489


20.2 Major Lignocellulosic Industrial Crops 492


20.3 Social, Economic and Environmental Aspects in Sustainability Criteria 498


20.4 Processing Alternatives for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Crops 502


20.5 Filling the Gap: From Farm to Industry 503


20.6 Perspectives 506


References 508


21 Industrial Waste Valorization: Applications to the Case of Liquid Biofuels 515
Haibo Huang and Qing Jin


21.1 Introduction 515


21.2 Types of Industrial Waste for Biofuel Production 516


21.3 Ethanol Production 517


21.4 Butanol 523


21.5 Biodiesel 527


21.6 Perspectives 531


References 531


22 The Environmental Impact of Pollution Prevention, Sustainable Energy Generation, and Other Sustainable Development Strategies Implemented by the Food Manufacturing Sector 539
Sandra D. Gaona, T.J. Pepping, Cheryl Keenan and Stephen C. DeVito


22.1 Introduction 539


22.2 Overview of the Food Manufacturing Industry 540


22.3 Chemicals and Chemical Wastes in the Food Manufacturing Industry 545


22.4 Pollution Prevention in Food Manufacturing 554


22.5 Perspectives 563


Disclaimer 564


References 564


23 Financing Strategies for Sustainable Bioenergy and the Commodity Chemicals Industry 569
Praveen V. Vadlani


23.1 The Current Financing Scenario at Global Level 569


23.2 Ethanol Biofuel Industry - An Overview 572


23.3 Bio-Based Industry - Current Status and Future Potential 577


23.4 Financing and Investment Strategy for Bio-Based Industries 579


23.5 Perspectives and Sustainable Financing Approach - Change in Wall Street Mindset in the Valuation of Bio-Based Industries 583


Acknowledgements 584


References 585


24 Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Sustainability as Forces of Change 587
Asutosh T. Yagnik


24.1 Introduction 587


24.2 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 587


24.3 From CSR to Corporate Sustainability 597


24.4 Perspectives 603


References 607


25 The Industrial World in the Twenty-First Century 613
Alain A. Vertes


25.1 Introduction: Energy and Sustainability 613


25.2 Transportation in the Twenty-First Century: A Carbon Tax Story 622


25.3 Cities of Change 627


25.4 The Chemical Industry Revisited 629


25.5 Paradigm Changes in Modes of Consumption 633


25.6 International Action for Curbing the Pollution of the Atmosphere Commons: The Case of CFCs and the Ozone Layer 634


25.7 Social Activism as an Engine of Change: Requiem for a Wonderful World 635


25.8 Perspectives: A Brave New World 636


References 639


Index 649

Om forfatteren

ALAIN A. VERTES, PHD, Sloan Fellow, London Business School, London, UK, and Managing Director of NxR Biotechnologies, Basel Switzerland, is a strategy and business development consultant and works to enable innovation deployment, funding and partnering in biotechnology.


NASIB QURESHI, PHD, is a Senior Research Chemical Engineer in Bioenergy Research Unit at the United States Department of Agriculture in Peoria, Illinois, USA, as well as, Adjunct Professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.


HANS P. BLASCHEK, PHD, is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA.


HIDEAKI YUKAWA, is the Chief Executive Officer of the Utilization of Carbon Dioxide Institute, Tokyo, Japan.