Green Energy to Sustainability: Strategies for Global Industries

Alain A. Vertes (Redaktør) ; Nasib Qureshi (Redaktør) ; Hans P. Blaschek (Redaktør) ; Hideaki Yukawa (Redaktør)

Reviews the latest advances in biofuel manufacturing technologies and discusses the deployment of other renewable energy for transportation

Aimed at providing an interface useful to business and scientific managers, this book focuses on the key challenges that still impede the realization of the billion-ton renewable fuels vision. Les mer
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Reviews the latest advances in biofuel manufacturing technologies and discusses the deployment of other renewable energy for transportation

Aimed at providing an interface useful to business and scientific managers, this book focuses on the key challenges that still impede the realization of the billion-ton renewable fuels vision. It places great emphasis on a global view of the topic, reviewing deployment and green energy technology in different countries across Africa, Asia, South America, the EU, and the USA. It also integrates scientific, technological, and business development perspectives to highlight the key developments that are necessary for the global replacement of fossil fuels with green energy solutions.

Green Energy to Sustainability: Strategies for Global Industries examines the most recent developments in biofuel manufacturing technologies in light of business, financial, value chain, and supply chain concerns. It also covers the use of other renewable energy sources like solar energy for transportation and proposes a view of the challenges over the next two to five decades, and how these will deeply modify the industrial world in the third millennium. The coming of age of electric vehicles is also looked at, as is the impact of their deployment on the biomass to biofuels value chain.

Offers extensive updates on the field of green energy for global industries

Covers the structure of the energy business; chemicals and diesel from biomass; ethanol and butanol; hydrogen and methane; and more

Provides an expanded focus on the next generation of energy technologies

Reviews the latest advances in biofuel manufacturing technologies

Integrates scientific, technological and business perspectives

Highlights important developments needed for replacing fossil fuels with green energy

Green Energy to Sustainability: Strategies for Global Industries will appeal to academic researchers working on the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks and those working in green and sustainable chemistry, and chemical/process engineering. It is also an excellent textbook for courses in bioprocessing technology, renewable resources, green energy, and sustainable chemistry.



About the Editors xxi

List of Contributors xxv

Foreword xxxi

Preface xxxiii

Part I Structure of the Energy Business 1

1 Economic Growth and the Global Energy Demand 3
Jurgen Scheffran, Miriam Felkers and Rebecca Froese

1.1 Historical Context and Relationship Between Energy and Development 3

1.2 Conceptual Framework for Pathways of Energy Use 6

1.3 World Population Trends and Prospects 7

1.4 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Economic Growth 8

1.5 Global Energy Development 11

1.6 Global Emissions of Greenhouse Gases 14

1.7 Linkages Between Kaya Factors 16

1.8 Development of Energy Investment 28

1.9 Conditions for Energy Transition and Decarbonization 31

1.10 Perspectives 37

Acknowledgments 38

References 38

2 The Energy Mix in Japan Post-Fukushima 45
Seiji Nakagame

2.1 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions by Japan 45

2.2 Energy Dependence 46

2.3 The Energy Policy of Japan 48

2.4 Paris Agreement 49

2.5 Prospective Energy Demand 50

2.6 Improvement in Energy Efficiency 50

2.7 Reduction of CO2 Emission in Electric Generation 51

2.8 Development of New Technologies for Decreasing GHG Emissions 51

2.9 Production and Use of Bioethanol in Japan 51

2.10 Production and Use of Hydrocarbons in Japan 52

2.11 Production and Use of Hydrogen in Japan 52

2.12 Contributions of the Japanese Government to Fundamental Research and Development 52

2.13 Perspectives 53

References 53

3 Green Energy in Africa, Asia, and South America 57
Daniel de Castro Assumpcao, Marcelo Hamaguchi, Jose Dilcio Rocha and Adriano P. Mariano

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 South America 58

3.3 Africa 62

3.4 Southeast Asia 66

3.5 China 69

3.6 Global Perspectives 72

References 72

4 The Development of Solar Energy Generation Technologies and Global Production Capabilities 77
F. John Hay and N. Ianno

4.1 Introduction 77

4.2 Sunlight and Photosynthesis 78

4.3 Photovoltaic Devices 79

4.4 Overview of Solar Photovoltaic Applications 82

4.5 Perspectives 83

References 84

5 Recent Trends, Opportunities and Challenges of Sustainable Aviation Fuel 85
Libing Zhang, Terri L. Butler and Bin Yang

5.1 Introduction 85

5.2 Overview of the Jet Fuel Market 86

5.3 Assessment of Environmental Policy and Economic Factors Affecting the Aviation Industry 93

5.4 Current Activities Around Biojet in the Aviation Industry 98

5.5 Challenges of Future Biojet Fuel Development 100

5.6 Perspectives 104

Acknowledgments 105

References 105

6 The Environmental Impact of Pollution Prevention and Other Sustainable Development Strategies Implemented by the Automotive Manufacturing Industry 111
Sandra D. Gaona, Cheryl Keenan, Cyril Vallet, Lawrence Reichle and Stephen C. DeVito

6.1 Introduction 111

6.2 Overview of the Automotive Manufacturing Industry 112

6.3 Chemicals and Chemical Waste in Automotive Manufacturing 114

6.4 Pollution Prevention in Automotive Manufacturing 121

6.5 Perspectives 131

Disclaimer 134

References 134

7 The Global Demand for Biofuels and Biotechnology-Derived Commodity Chemicals: Technologies, Markets, and Challenges 137
Stephen R. Hughes and Marjorie A. Jones

7.1 Introduction 137

7.2 Overview of Global Energy Demand 137

7.3 Petroleum Demand and Petroleum Products for Potential Replacement by Bioproducts 140

7.4 Role of Biofuels and Biobased Chemicals in Renewable Energy Demand 143

7.5 Achieving Petroleum Replacement with Biobased Fuels and Chemicals 145

7.6 Projections of Global Demand for Biobased Fuels and Chemicals 149

7.7 Potential Impacts on Price of Transportation Fuels and Chemicals Assuming Various Scenarios of World Economic Growth 151

7.8 Projection of Energy-Related CO2 Emissions With or Without Remediation Technology 151

7.9 Government Impact on Demand for Biofuels and Biobased Chemicals 152

7.10 Perspectives 154

References 155

Part II Chemicals and Transportation Fuels from Biomass 157

8 Sustainable Platform Chemicals from Biomass 159
Ankita Juneja and Vijay Singh

8.1 Introduction 159

8.2 2-Carbon 161

8.3 3-Carbon 163

8.4 4-Carbon 166

8.5 5-Carbon 169

8.6 6-Carbon 171

8.7 Perspectives 174

References 175

9 Biofuels from Microalgae and Seaweeds: Potentials of Industrial Scale Production 185
Licheng Peng, Freeman Lan and Christopher Q. Lan

9.1 Introduction 185

9.2 Biofuels 186

9.3 Biofuels from Microalgae and Seaweeds 191

9.4 Recent Developments in Algae Processing Technologies 195

9.5 Potential for Industrial Scale Production 200

9.6 Progresses in the Commercial Production of Alga-Based Biofuels 205

9.7 Perspectives 209

References 210

10 Advanced Fermentation Technologies: Conversion of Biomass to Ethanol by Organisms Other than Yeasts, a Case for Escherichia coli 219
K. T. Shanmugam, Lorraine P. Yomano, Sean W. York and Lonnie O. Ingram

10.1 Introduction 219

10.2 Zymomonas mobilis 222

10.3 Escherichia coli 223

10.4 Osmotic Stress of High Sugar Concentration 227

10.5 Inhibitor-Tolerant Ethanologenic E. coli 227

10.6 Engineering Bacterial Biocatalysts Other than E. coli for the Production of Ethanol Using the PDC/ADH Pathway 229

10.7 Ethanol Production by Non-PDC Pathways 230

10.8 Partition of Carbon at the Pyruvate Node 231

10.9 Other Metabolic Pathways that Contribute to Ethanol Production 231

10.10 Perspectives 232

Acknowledgements 232

References 233

11 Clostridia and Process Engineering for Energy Generation 239
Adriano P. Mariano, Danilo S. Braz, Henrique C. A. Venturelli and Nasib Qureshi

11.1 Introduction 239

11.2 Recent Technological Advances 241

11.3 Economic Modelling and Case Study 246

11.4 Perspectives 263

Acknowledgements 263

References 264

12 Fuel Ethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Materials Using Recombinant Yeasts 269
Stephen R. Hughes and Marjorie A. Jones

12.1 Review of Current Fuel Ethanol Production 269

12.2 Evolution of Cost of Cellulosic Ethanol Production 272

12.3 Technological Opportunities to Reduce Cellulosic Ethanol Production Costs 277

12.4 Perspectives: Approaches to Optimize the Use of Lignocellulosic and Waste Materials as Feedstocks 279

References 281

13 Enzymes for Cellulosic Biomass Hydrolysis and Saccharification 283
Elmar M. Villota, Ziyu Dai, Yanpin Lu and Bin Yang

13.1 Introduction 283

13.2 Glycosyl Hydrolases: General Structure and Mechanism 286

13.3 The Cellulase Enzyme System 289

13.4 The Hemicellulase Enzyme System 295

13.5 Microorganisms for Biomass Hydrolysis 299

13.6 Perspectives 308

Acknowledgement 309

References 309

14 Life Cycle Assessment of Biofuels and Green Commodity Chemicals 327
Mairi J. Black, Onesmus Mwabonje, Aiduan Li Borrion and Aurelia Karina Hillary

14.1 Introduction 327

14.2 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) 328

14.3 The Origin and Principles of Life Cycle Assessment 329

14.4 Developing a Life Cycle Assessment 329

14.5 Scope of the Life Cycle Assessment: Attributional verses Consequential 331

14.6 Biofuels and Green Commodity Chemicals 332

14.7 Feedstocks for Biofuels 332

14.8 Conversion of Feedstock 333

14.9 Supply Chain and Logistics 335

14.10 Using LCA as a Tool to Assess GHG Emissions and Other Impacts Associated with Bioethanol Production and Supply 335

14.11 Discussion on the Suitability of LCA 336

14.12 Perspectives: Moving Forward with the LCA Concept 348

References 349

Part III Hydrogen and Methane 355

15 Biotechnological Production of Fuel Hydrogen and Its Market Deployment 357
Carolina Zampol Lazaro, Emrah Sagir and Patrick C. Hallenbeck

15.1 Introduction 357

15.2 Hydrogen Production Through Dark Fermentation 358

15.3 Hydrogen Production Through Photofermentation 370

15.4 Hydrogen Production by Combined Systems 370

15.5 Perspectives 379

Acknowledgements 383

References 383

16 Deployment of Biogas Production Technologies in Emerging Countries 395
Guangyin Zhen, Xueqin Lu, Xiaohui Wang, Shaojuan Zheng, Jianhui Wang, Zhongxiang Zhi, Lianghu Su, Kaiqin Xu, Takuro Kobayashi, Gopalakrishnan Kumar and Youcai Zhao

16.1 Introduction 395

16.2 Types of Feedstock 397

16.3 Pretreatment Technologies of Anaerobic Digestion Feedstocks 404

16.4 Full-scale Implementation Status of Anaerobic Digestion in Developing Countries 413

16.5 Perspectives 416

References 416

17 Hydrogen Production by Algae 425
Tunc Catal and Halil Kavakli

17.1 Importance of Hydrogen Production 425

17.2 Hydrogen Producing Microorganisms 427

17.3 Hydrogen Producing Algae (Macro-Micro) Species 428

17.4 Production of Biohydrogen Through Fermentation 431

17.5 Technologies (Solar Algae Fuel Cell/Microbial Fuel Cell) 433

17.6 Possibility of Commercial Production of Hydrogen 434

17.7 Perspectives and Future Implications of Algae in Biotechnology 437

References 438

18 Production and Utilization of Methane Biogas as Renewable Fuel 447
Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale, Jeyapraksh Damaraja, Sutha Shobana, Rijuta Ganesh Saratale, Sivagurunathan Periyasamy, Gunagyin Zhen and Gopalakrishnan Kumar

18.1 Introduction 447

18.2 Anaerobic Digestion 448

18.3 Mechanism of Anaerobic Digestion 449

18.4 Significant Factors Influencing Anaerobic Digestion 455

18.5 Strategies Applied to Enhance Microalgae Methane Biogas Production 456

18.6 Utilization of Methane Biogas as a Renewable Fuel 458

18.7 Perspectives 459

References 459

Part IV Perspectives 465

19 Integrated Biorefineries for the Production of Bioethanol, Biodiesel, and Other Commodity Chemicals 467
Pedro F Souza Filho and Mohammad J Taherzadeh

19.1 Introduction 467

19.2 Types of Biorefineries 468

19.3 Biorefinery Platforms 471

19.4 Integrated Biorefineries 472

19.5 Coproducts 475

19.6 Integrating Ethanol and Biodiesel Refineries 480

19.7 Economical Aspects 482

19.8 Perspectives 484

References 484

20 Lignocellulosic Crops as Sustainable Raw Materials for Bioenergy 489
Emiliano Maletta and Carlos Hernandez Diaz-Ambrona

20.1 Introduction 489

20.2 Major Lignocellulosic Industrial Crops 492

20.3 Social, Economic and Environmental Aspects in Sustainability Criteria 498

20.4 Processing Alternatives for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Crops 502

20.5 Filling the Gap: From Farm to Industry 503

20.6 Perspectives 506

References 508

21 Industrial Waste Valorization: Applications to the Case of Liquid Biofuels 515
Haibo Huang and Qing Jin

21.1 Introduction 515

21.2 Types of Industrial Waste for Biofuel Production 516

21.3 Ethanol Production 517

21.4 Butanol 523

21.5 Biodiesel 527

21.6 Perspectives 531

References 531

22 The Environmental Impact of Pollution Prevention, Sustainable Energy Generation, and Other Sustainable Development Strategies Implemented by the Food Manufacturing Sector 539
Sandra D. Gaona, T.J. Pepping, Cheryl Keenan and Stephen C. DeVito

22.1 Introduction 539

22.2 Overview of the Food Manufacturing Industry 540

22.3 Chemicals and Chemical Wastes in the Food Manufacturing Industry 545

22.4 Pollution Prevention in Food Manufacturing 554

22.5 Perspectives 563

Disclaimer 564

References 564

23 Financing Strategies for Sustainable Bioenergy and the Commodity Chemicals Industry 569
Praveen V. Vadlani

23.1 The Current Financing Scenario at Global Level 569

23.2 Ethanol Biofuel Industry - An Overview 572

23.3 Bio-Based Industry - Current Status and Future Potential 577

23.4 Financing and Investment Strategy for Bio-Based Industries 579

23.5 Perspectives and Sustainable Financing Approach - Change in Wall Street Mindset in the Valuation of Bio-Based Industries 583

Acknowledgements 584

References 585

24 Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Sustainability as Forces of Change 587
Asutosh T. Yagnik

24.1 Introduction 587

24.2 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 587

24.3 From CSR to Corporate Sustainability 597

24.4 Perspectives 603

References 607

25 The Industrial World in the Twenty-First Century 613
Alain A. Vertes

25.1 Introduction: Energy and Sustainability 613

25.2 Transportation in the Twenty-First Century: A Carbon Tax Story 622

25.3 Cities of Change 627

25.4 The Chemical Industry Revisited 629

25.5 Paradigm Changes in Modes of Consumption 633

25.6 International Action for Curbing the Pollution of the Atmosphere Commons: The Case of CFCs and the Ozone Layer 634

25.7 Social Activism as an Engine of Change: Requiem for a Wonderful World 635

25.8 Perspectives: A Brave New World 636

References 639

Index 649

Om forfatteren

ALAIN A. VERTES, PHD, Sloan Fellow, London Business School, London, UK, and Managing Director of NxR Biotechnologies, Basel Switzerland, is a strategy and business development consultant and works to enable innovation deployment, funding and partnering in biotechnology.

NASIB QURESHI, PHD, is a Senior Research Chemical Engineer in Bioenergy Research Unit at the United States Department of Agriculture in Peoria, Illinois, USA, as well as, Adjunct Professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.

HANS P. BLASCHEK, PHD, is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA.

HIDEAKI YUKAWA, is the Chief Executive Officer of the Utilization of Carbon Dioxide Institute, Tokyo, Japan.