Body Sensations

The Conscious Aspects of Interoception

The monograph aims to present the recent scientific knowledge on body sensations, i.e., conscious experiences that are localized or felt in the body from an internal perspective, regardless of their sensory origin. Les mer
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Leveringstid: Usikker levering*
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The monograph aims to present the recent scientific knowledge on body sensations, i.e., conscious experiences that are localized or felt in the body from an internal perspective, regardless of their sensory origin. It summarizes the basic philosophical, evolutionary, neuroanatomical, psychological, and pathological aspects of the topic. Moreover, related phenomena, such as emotions, the placebo and nocebo effect, complementary and alternative medicine, and mind-body practices are discussed from the perspective of body sensations.

Fakta

Innholdsfortegnelse

Foreword.............................................................................................................................................. 5



Preface.................................................................................................................................................. 6



Introduction.......................................................................................................................................... 9



The importance of body sensations............................................................................................ 9



A brief history of the scientific research on interoception........................................................ 10



Predictive processing................................................................................................................ 21



Structure of the book................................................................................................................ 25



Chapter 1. How did it start? An evolutionary approach to consciousness......................................... 27



The end of the paradise and its consequences.......................................................................... 27



The roots of subjectivity........................................................................................................... 31



Higher consciousness................................................................................................................ 35



Summary................................................................................................................................... 38



Take-home messages................................................................................................................ 38



Chapter 2. From the body to the brain: The biological background.................................................. 40



Homeostatic (afferent interoceptive) pathways........................................................................ 42



Somatosensory pathways.......................................................................................................... 48



Integration................................................................................................................................. 51



Affective aspects....................................................................................................................... 53



The origins of the self............................................................................................................... 56



A final word on body sensations............................................................................................... 61



Summary................................................................................................................................... 62



Take-home messages................................................................................................................ 62



Chapter 3. What can we sense? Individual differences in interoceptive accuracy............................ 63



General methodological considerations.................................................................................... 63



Early conditioning studies........................................................................................................ 66



Visceral modalities 1 - Heartbeat............................................................................................. 69



Visceral modalities 2 - Blood pressure.................................................................................... 78



Visceral modalities 3 - Respiratory modalities........................................................................ 79



Visceral modalities 4 - Gastric modalities............................................................................... 81



Visceral modalities 5 - Intestinal modalities............................................................................ 84



Visceral modalities 6 - Urinary system.................................................................................... 86



Visceral modalities 7 - Sexual excitement............................................................................... 87



Visceral modalities 8 - Other modalities.................................................................................. 88



Further homeostatic modalities 1 - Temperature..................................................................... 91



Further homeostatic modalities 2 - Itch................................................................................... 92



Further homeostatic modalities 3 - Pain.................................................................................. 93



Further homeostatic modalities 4 - Sensual or limbic touch.................................................... 96



Further homeostatic modalities 5 - Muscle fatigue and perceived exertion............................ 97



Further homeostatic modalities 6 - Smell and taste................................................................. 98



Somatosensory modalities 1 - Muscle tension and exertion.................................................... 99



Somatosensory modalities 2 - Joint position and movement................................................. 102



Somatosensory modalities 3 - Vestibular information........................................................... 103



Somatosensory modalities 4 - Tactile information................................................................. 104



The question of generalizability............................................................................................. 105



Pathological considerations.................................................................................................... 108



Summary................................................................................................................................. 108



Take-home messages............................................................................................................... 113



Chapter 4. What do we perceive? Individual differences in interoceptive sensitivity..................... 114



Introduction............................................................................................................................. 114



Historical roots........................................................................................................................ 115



Symptom reports..................................................................................................................... 116



Self-focused attention and body awareness............................................................................ 119



Issues with attention 1............................................................................................................ 122



The tingling sensation............................................................................................................. 125



Issues with attention 2............................................................................................................ 128



Bottom-up interoceptive attention - Early ideas.................................................................... 131



Bottom-up interoceptive attention - Reaction time tests........................................................ 134



Top-down interoceptive attention - Monitoring tendency..................................................... 135



Acute and generalized interoceptive sensibility..................................................................... 137



The evaluative aspect.............................................................................................................. 139



Summary................................................................................................................................. 142



Take-home messages.............................................................................................................. 144



Chapter 5. Can we trust our feelings? The discrepancy between actual and perceived events....... 145



Dissociable and non-dissociable modalities........................................................................... 145



Dissociation between actual and perceived events................................................................. 147



The perceptual accuracy hypothesis....................................................................................... 149



Models of hypochondriasis..................................................................................................... 150



Anxiety and stress - From repression to cardiovascular reactivity........................................ 151



False heart rate feedback studies and once again on the Schandry-test................................. 153



Interoceptive awareness.......................................................................................................... 155



Philosophical speculations...................................................................................................... 159



What about non-dissociable modalities?................................................................................ 159



Summary................................................................................................................................. 160



Take-home messages............................................................................................................. 162



Chapter 6. Putting everything together - Integrated models and pathological aspects of internal perception.......................................................................................................................................................... 163



Introduction............................................................................................................................. 163



The bottom-up approach 1 - Naive realism........................................................................... 164



The bottom-up approach 2 - Linear (unidirectional) models of symptom perception........... 165



Negative affect....................................................................................................................... 169



The top-down approach 1 - Non-linear models..................................................................... 172



The top-down approach 2 - Expectations.............................................................................. 175



The top-down approach 3 - Predictive processing................................................................. 178



The pathological aspects: dissociation, conversion, somatization......................................... 182



An example: Electromagnetic hypersensitivity...................................................................... 185



Summary................................................................................................................................. 188



Take-home messages.............................................................................................................. 188



Chapter 7. Interoception and emotions............................................................................................ 189



# to be completed.................................................................................................................... 189



Chapter 8. Negative consequences of what we don't feel or mistakenly feel.................................. 190



# to be completed.................................................................................................................... 190



Chapter 9. Positive consequences what we feel, accurately or mistakenly..................................... 191



# to be completed.................................................................................................................... 191



Epilogue........................................................................................................................................... 192



# to be completed.................................................................................................................... 192



References........................................................................................................................................ 193



Om forfatteren

Ferenc Koeteles is professor of psychology and the head of the Adam Gyoergy Psychophysiology Lab at the Institute of Health Promotion and Sport Sciences, Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest, Hungary.He is primarily interested in the complex relationship between physiological and psychological processes. His research focuses on the placebo and nocebo phenomenon, various aspects of interoception, and the effects of mind-body interventions.