Metrological data is known to be blurred by the imperfections of the measuring process. In retrospect, for about two centuries
regular or constant errors were no focal point of experimental activities, only irregular or random error were. Today's notation
of unknown systematic errors is in line with this. Confusingly enough, the worldwide practiced approach to belatedly admit
those unknown systematic errors amounts to consider them as being random, too. This book discusses a new error concept dispensing
with the common practice to randomize unknown systematic errors. Instead, unknown systematic errors will be treated as what
they physically are- namely as constants being unknown with respect to magnitude and sign. The ideas considered in this book
issue a proceeding steadily localizing the true values of the measurands and consequently traceability.