This book gives a survey of the physics and fabrication of carbon nanotubes and their applications in optics, electronics,
chemistry and biotechnology. It focuses on the structural characterization of various carbon nanotubes, fabrication of vertically
or parallel aligned carbon nanotubes on substrates or in composites, physical properties for their alignment, and applications
of aligned carbon nanotubes in field emission, optical antennas, light transmission, solar cells, chemical devices, bio-devices,
and many others. Major fabrication methods are illustrated in detail, particularly the most widely used PECVD growth technique
on which various device integration schemes are based, followed by applications such as electrical interconnects, nanodiodes,
optical antennas, and nanocoax solar cells, whereas current limitations and challenges are also be discussed to lay the foundation
for future developments.