Scientific Philosophy

This textbook presents the basics of philosophy that are necessary for the student and researcher in science in order to better understand scientific work. The approach is not historical but formative: tools for semantical analysis, ontology of science, epistemology, and scientific ethics are presented in a formal and direct way. Les mer
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Vår pris: 877,-

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This textbook presents the basics of philosophy that are necessary for the student and researcher in science in order to better understand scientific work. The approach is not historical but formative: tools for semantical analysis, ontology of science, epistemology, and scientific ethics are presented in a formal and direct way. The book has two parts: one with the general theory and a second part with application to some problems such as the interpretation of quantum mechanics, the nature of mathematics, and the ontology of spacetime. The book addresses questions such as "What is meaning?", "What is truth?", "What are truth criteria in science?", "What is a theory?", "What is a model?" "What is a datum?", "What is information?", "What does it mean to understand something?", "What is space?", "What is time?", "How are these concepts articulated in science?" "What are values?" "What are the limits of science?", and many more. The philosophical views presented are "scientific" in the sense that they are informed by current science, they are relevant for scientific research, and the method adopted uses the hypothetical-deductive approach that is characteristic of science. The results and conclusions, as any scientific conclusion, are open to revision in the light of future advances. Hence, this philosophical approach opposes to dogmatic philosophy. Supported by end-of-chapter summaries and a list of special symbols used, the material will be of interest for students and researchers in both science and philosophy. The second part will appeal to physicists and mathematicians.

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Innholdsfortegnelse

CONTENTS1 introduction 12 philosophical semantics 72.1 Introduction: formal languages 72.2 Denotation and designation 102.3 Reference 102.4 Representation 122.5 Intension and sense 132.6 Meaning 142.7 Vagueness 172.8 Theory of truth 182.8.1 A short overview of some theories of truth 192.8.2 Formal truth 232.8.3 Factual truth 232.8.4 Relevancy 242.8.5 Truth bearers 262.8.6 Analytic/Synthetic distinction of propositions 273 ontology 313.1 Things and composition 313.2 Properties and substance 353.3 Existence 393.4 Levels, systems, structure 413.5 Causality 423.6 Chance and probability 433.7 Space, time, and spacetime 443.8 Matter 453.9 Mind 453.10 Materialism 463.11 Information 463.12 Biological systems 473.13 Social systems 484 epistemology 514.1 Knowledge 514.2 Understanding 544.3 Explanation 544.4 Sufficient reason 564.5 Model 604.6 Theories 604.7 Science 634.8 The limits of science 644.9 Technology 664.10 Pseudoscience and pseudotechnology 674.11 Scientific Philosophy 685 ethics 735.1 Values 735.2 Axiology 755.3 Free will 765.4 The ontological status of goods, values, and morals 785.5 Ethics 785.6 Metaethics 805.7 Action 806 aesthetics 856.1 Aesthetic experience 856.2 Beauty 866.3 Art and artworks 876.4 The ontology of art 907 mathematical fictionalism 957.1 The nature of mathematics 967.2 Mathematical objects as conceptual artifacts 987.3 Why mathematics can be applied to reality? 1008 philosophical problems of quantum mechanics 1058.1 Introduction 1058.2 Outline of QM 1058.3 Axiomatization of QM 1078.3.1 Tools 1088.3.2 Formal background 1118.3.3 Material background 1118.3.4 Remarks 1118.3.5 Generating basis 1128.3.6 Definitions 1128.3.7 Axiomatic basis 1138.3.8 Axioms 1138.3.9 Remarks 1168.3.10 Definitions 1168.3.11 Some theorems 1168.3.12 Remarks 1188.4 Philosophical issues 1198.5 Extension to systems of many components 1208.6 EPR and realism 1218.7 Entanglement 1239 quantum objects 1299.1 Introduction 1299.2 Identity and the quantum world 1299.3 Ontic vagueness? 1339.4 Realistic quantum ontology 13510 ontological problems of spacetime 14110.1 Introduction 14110.2 The controversy 14210.3 Against Presentism 14410.4 When is 'now'? 14810.5 Defining the present 15010.6 Some further objections against presentism 15110.7 Event substantivalism and the emergence of things 15310.8 Defending eternalism 15710.9 Relationism before time 15910.10An o