Stability and Transition in Shear Flows

; Dan S. Henningson

Serie: Applied Mathematical Sciences 142

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1 Introduction and General Results.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Nonlinear Disturbance Equations.- 1.3 Definition of Stability and Critical Reynolds Numbers.- 1.3.1 Definition of Stability.- 1.3.2 Critical Reynolds Numbers.- 1.3.3 Spatial Evolution of Disturbances.- 1.4 The Reynolds-Orr Equation.- 1.4.1 Derivation of the Reynolds-Orr Equation.- 1.4.2 The Need for Linear Growth Mechanisms.- I Temporal Stability of Parallel Shear Flows.- 2 Linear Inviscid Analysis.- 2.1 Inviscid Linear Stability Equations.- 2.2 Modal Solutions.- 2.2.1 General Results.- 2.2.2 Dispersive Effects and Wave Packets.- 2.3 Initial Value Problem.- 2.3.1 The Inviscid Initial Value Problem.- 2.3.2 Laplace Transform Solution.- 2.3.3 Solutions to the Normal Vorticity Equation.- 2.3.4 Example: Couette Flow.- 2.3.5 Localized Disturbances.- 3 Eigensolutions to the Viscous Problem.- 3.1 Viscous Linear Stability Equations.- 3.1.1 The Velocity-Vorticity Formulation.- 3.1.2 The Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire Equations.- 3.1.3 Squire's Transformation and Squire's Theorem.- 3.1.4 Vector Modes.- 3.1.5 Pipe Flow.- 3.2 Spectra and Eigenfunctions.- 3.2.1 Discrete Spectrum.- 3.2.2 Neutral Curves.- 3.2.3 Continuous Spectrum.- 3.2.4 Asymptotic Results.- 3.3 Further Results on Spectra and Eigenfunctions.- 3.3.1 Adjoint Problem and Bi-Orthogonality Condition.- 3.3.2 Sensitivity of Eigenvalues.- 3.3.3 Pseudo-Eigenvalues.- 3.3.4 Bounds on Eigenvalues.- 3.3.5 Dispersive Effects and Wave Packets.- 4 The Viscous Initial Value Problem.- 4.1 The Viscous Initial Value Problem.- 4.1.1 Motivation.- 4.1.2 Derivation of the Disturbance Equations.- 4.1.3 Disturbance Measure.- 4.2 The Forced Squire Equation and Transient Growth.- 4.2.1 Eigenfunction Expansion.- 4.2.2 Blasius Boundary Layer Flow.- 4.3 The Complete Solution to the Initial Value Problem.- 4.3.1 Continuous Formulation.- 4.3.2 Discrete Formulation.- 4.4 Optimal Growth.- 4.4.1 The Matrix Exponential.- 4.4.2 Maximum Amplification.- 4.4.3 Optimal Disturbances.- 4.4.4 Reynolds Number Dependence of Optimal Growth.- 4.5 Optimal Response and Optimal Growth Rate.- 4.5.1 The Forced Problem and the Resolvent.- 4.5.2 Maximum Growth Rate.- 4.5.3 Response to Stochastic Excitation.- 4.6 Estimates of Growth.- 4.6.1 Bounds on Matrix Exponential.- 4.6.2 Conditions for No Growth.- 4.7 Localized Disturbances.- 4.7.1 Choice of Initial Disturbances.- 4.7.2 Examples.- 4.7.3 Asymptotic Behavior.- 5 Nonlinear Stability.- 5.1 Motivation.- 5.1.1 Introduction.- 5.1.2 A Model Problem.- 5.2 Nonlinear Initial Value Problem.- 5.2.1 The Velocity-Vorticity Equations.- 5.3 Weakly Nonlinear Expansion.- 5.3.1 Multiple-Scale Analysis.- 5.3.2 The Landau Equation.- 5.4 Three-Wave Interactions.- 5.4.1 Resonance Conditions.- 5.4.2 Derivation of a Dynamical System.- 5.4.3 Triad Interactions.- 5.5 Solutions to the Nonlinear Initial Value Problem.- 5.5.1 Formal Solutions to the Nonlinear Initial Value Problem.- 5.5.2 Weakly Nonlinear Solutions and the Center Manifold.- 5.5.3 Nonlinear Equilibrium States.- 5.5.4 Numerical Solutions for Localized Disturbances.- 5.6 Energy Theory.- 5.6.1 The Energy Stability Problem.- 5.6.2 Additional Constraints.- II Stability of Complex Flows and Transition.- 6 Temporal Stability of Complex Flows.- 6.1 Effect of Pressure Gradient and Crossflow.- 6.1.1 Falkner-Skan (FS) Boundary Layers.- 6.1.2 Falkner-Skan-Cooke (FSC) Boundary layers.- 6.2 Effect of Rotation and Curvature.- 6.2.1 Curved Channel Flow.- 6.2.2 Rotating Channel Flow.- 6.2.3 Combined Effect of Curvature and Rotation.- 6.3 Effect of Surface Tension.- 6.3.1 Water Table Flow.- 6.3.2 Energy and the Choice of Norm.- 6.3.3 Results.- 6.4 Stability of Unsteady Flow.- 6.4.1 Oscillatory Flow.- 6.4.2 Arbitrary Time Dependence.- 6.5 Effect of Compressibility.- 6.5.1 The Compressible Initial Value Problem.- 6.5.2 Inviscid Instabilities and Rayleigh's Criterion.- 6.5.3 Viscous Instability.- 6.5.4 Nonmodal Growth.- 7 Growth of Disturbances in Space.- 7.1 Spatial Eigenvalue Analysis.- 7.1.1 Introduction.- 7.1.2 Spatial Spectra.- 7.1.3 Gaster's Transformation.- 7.1.4 Harmonic Point Source.- 7.2 Absolute Instability.- 7.2.1 The Concept of Absolute Instability.- 7.2.2 Briggs' Method.- 7.2.3 The Cusp Map.- 7.2.4 Stability of a Two-Dimensional Wake.- 7.2.5 Stability of Rotating Disk Flow.- 7.3 Spatial Initial Value Problem.- 7.3.1 Primitive Variable Formulation.- 7.3.2 Solution of the Spatial Initial Value Problem.- 7.3.3 The Vibrating Ribbon Problem.- 7.4 Nonparallel Effects.- 7.4.1 Asymptotic Methods.- 7.4.2 Parabolic Equations for Steady Disturbances.- 7.4.3 Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE).- 7.4.4 Spatial Optimal Disturbances.- 7.4.5 Global Instability.- 7.5 Nonlinear Effects.- 7.5.1 Nonlinear Wave Interactions.- 7.5.2 Nonlinear Parabolized Stability Equations.- 7.5.3 Examples.- 7.6 Disturbance Environment and Receptivity.- 7.6.1 Introduction.- 7.6.2 Nonlocalized and Localized Receptivity.- 7.6.3 An Adjoint Approach to Receptivity.- 7.6.4 Receptivity Using Parabolic Evolution Equations.- 8 Secondary Instability.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Secondary Instability of Two-Dimensional Waves.- 8.2.1 Derivation of the Equations.- 8.2.2 Numerical Results.- 8.2.3 Elliptical Instability.- 8.3 Secondary Instability of Vortices and Streaks.- 8.3.1 Governing Equations.- 8.3.2 Examples of Secondary Instability of Streaks and Vortices.- 8.4 Eckhaus Instability.- 8.4.1 Secondary Instability of Parallel Flows.- 8.4.2 Parabolic Equations for Spatial Eckhaus Instability.- 9 Transition to Turbulence.- 9.1 Transition Scenarios and Thresholds.- 9.1.1 Introduction.- 9.1.2 Three Transition Scenarios.- 9.1.3 The Most Likely Transition Scenario.- 9.1.4 Conclusions.- 9.2 Breakdown of Two-Dimensional Waves.- 9.2.1 The Zero Pressure Gradient Boundary Layer.- 9.2.2 Breakdown of Mixing Layers.- 9.3 Streak Breakdown.- 9.3.1 Streaks Forced by Blowing or Suction.- 9.3.2 Freestream Turbulence.- 9.4 Oblique Transition.- 9.4.1 Experiments and Simulations in Blasius Flow.- 9.4.2 Transition in a Separation Bubble.- 9.4.3 Compressible Oblique Transition.- 9.5 Transition of Vortex-Dominated Flows.- 9.5.1 Transition in Flows with Curvature.- 9.5.2 Direct Numerical Simulations of Secondary Instability of Crossflow Vortices.- 9.5.3 Experimental Investigations of Breakdown of Cross-flow Vortices.- 9.6 Breakdown of Localized Disturbances.- 9.6.1 Experimental Results for Boundary Layers.- 9.6.2 Direct Numerical Simulations in Boundary Layers.- 9.7 Transition Modeling.- 9.7.1 Low-Dimensional Models of Subcritical Transition.- 9.7.2 Traditional Transition Prediction Models.- 9.7.3 Transition Prediction Models Based on Nonmodal Growth.- 9.7.4 Nonlinear Transition Modeling.- III Appendix.- A Numerical Issues and Computer Programs.- A.1 Global versus Local Methods.- A.2 Runge-Kutta Methods.- A.3 Chebyshev Expansions.- A.4 Infinite Domain and Continuous Spectrum.- A.5 Chebyshev Discretization of the Orr-Sommerfeld Equation.- A.6 MATLAB Codes for Hydrodynamic Stability Calculations.- A.7 Eigenvalues of Parallel Shear Flows.- B Resonances and Degeneracies.- B.1 Resonances and Degeneracies.- B.2 Orr-Sommerfeld-Squire Resonance.- C Adjoint of the Linearized Boundary Layer Equation.- C.1 Adjoint of the Linearized Boundary Layer Equation.- D Selected Problems on Part I.