More is Different

Fifty Years of Condensed Matter Physics

Nai-Phuan Ong (Redaktør) ; Ravin Bhatt (Redaktør)

This book presents articles written by leading experts surveying several major subfields in Condensed Matter Physics and related sciences. The articles are based on invited talks presented at a recent conference honoring Nobel laureate Philip W. Les mer
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Vår pris: 1384,-

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Leveringstid: Sendes innen 21 dager
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This book presents articles written by leading experts surveying several major subfields in Condensed Matter Physics and related sciences. The articles are based on invited talks presented at a recent conference honoring Nobel laureate Philip W. Anderson of Princeton University, who coined the phrase "More is different" while formulating his contention that all fields of physics, indeed all of science, involve equally fundamental insights. The articles introduce and survey current research in areas that have been close to Anderson's interests. Together, they illustrate both the deep impact that Anderson has had in this multifaceted field during the past half century and the progress spawned by his insights. The contributors cover numerous topics under the umbrellas of superconductivity, superfluidity, magnetism, electron localization, strongly interacting electronic systems, heavy fermions, and disorder and frustration in glass and spin-glass systems.
They also describe interdisciplinary areas such as the science of olfaction and color vision, the screening of macroions in electrolytes, scaling and renormalization in cosmology, forest fires and the spread of measles, and the investigation of "NP-complete" problems in computer science. The articles are authored by Philip W. Anderson, Per Bak and Kan Chen, G. Baskaran, Juan Carlos Campuzano, Paul Chaikin, John Hopfield, Bernhard Keimer, Scott Kirkpatrick and Bart Selman, Gabriel Kotliar, Patrick Lee, Yoshiteru Maeno, Marc Mezard, Douglas Osheroff et al., H. R. Ott, L. Pietronero et al., T. V. Ramakrishnan, A. Ramirez, Myriam Sarachik, T. Senthil and Matthew P. A. Fisher, B. I. Shklovskii et al., and F. Steglich et al.

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Innholdsfortegnelse

PREFACE: N. PHUAN ONG AND RAVIN N. BHATT xi 1950 TO Y2K: E.ABRAHAMS xv 1. MORE is DIFFERENT - ONE MORE TIME 1 PHILIP W. ANDERSON 1 2 LOCALIZATION YESTERDAY, TODAY, TOMORROW 9 T. V. RAMAKRISHNAN 9 2.1 ABSENCE OF DIFFUSION IN RANDOM LATTICES 9 2.1.1 EXPERIMENTAL BACKGROUND 9 2.1.2 THE LOCALIZATION IDEA 10 2.1.3 RELATED DEVELOPMENTS 11 2.1.4 CONSEQUENCES OF LOCALIZATION 12 2.1.5 LOCALIZATION AS A GENERAL FEATURE OF DISORDER 13 2.2 SCALING AND WEAK LOCALIZATION 14 2.2.1 THOULESS CONDUCTANCE 14 2.2.2 SCALING THEORY 15 2.2.3 WEAK LOCALIZATION 16 2.2.4 THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENTS 18 2.2.5 MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS AND PHENOMENA 21 2.2.6 OTHER EXCITATIONS 21 2.2.7 SUMMARY 22 2.3 TOMORROW 23 2.3.1 GLASS AND SPIN GLASS 23 2.3.2 SUPERCONDUCTOR-INSULATOR TRANSITION 23 2.3.3 METAL-INSULATOR TRANSITION IN 2D 24 2.3.4 DECOHFRENCE IN DISORDERED CONDUCTORS 25 2.3.5 LOCALIZATION IN MANGANITES 27 3 METAL-INSULATOR TRANSITIONS IN DISORDERED SYSTEMS 33 MYRIAM P. SARACHIK 33 3.1 CRITICAL ExPONENT PUZZLE IN 3D 33 3.2 NOVEL PHENOMENA IN DILUTE 2D SYSTEMS: NEW PHYSICS OR OLD? 33 4 THE NATURE OF SUPERFLUID 3HE IN SILICA AEROGEL 47 D. D. OSHEROFF, B. 1. BARKER, AND Y. LEE 47 4.1 INTRODUCTION 47 4.2 RESULTS OF THE FIRST STUDY 51 4.3 RESULTS OF THE SECOND STUDY 54 4.4 COMPARISON WITH PREVIOUS RESULTS 59 4.5 CONCLUSIONS 61 5 RVB DESCRIPTION OF HIGH-T, SUPERCONDUCTORS 63 PATRICK A. LEE 63 5.1 INTRODUCTION 63 5.2 REVIEW OF RVB THEORY 64 5.3 PROJECTED WAVEFUNCTIONS AND STAGGERED CURRENT FLUCTUATIONS 68 5.4 CONCLUSION 73 6. ANGLE-RESOLVED PHOTOEMISSION RESULTS IN CUPRATES 75 J. C. CAMPUZANO 75 6.1 INTRODUCTION 75 6.2 NATURE OF THE ELECTRONIC STATES 76 6.3 EXCITATIONS AT THE FERMI SURFACE 77 6.4 QUASIPARTICLES IN THE SUPERCONDUCTING STATE 80 6.5 NEW ENERGY SCALES IN THE SUPERCONDUCTING STATE 82 7. SPIN EXCITATIONS IN COPPER OXIDE SUPERCONDUCTORS 91 B. KEIMER 91 7.1 INTRODUCTION 91 7,2 NEUTRON SPECTROSCOPY RESULTS IN CUPRATES 92 7.3 STRIPE FORMATION IN LA2-xSRxCU04 94 7.4 MAGNETIC RESONANCE PEAK IN CUPRATES 95 7.5 ORIGIN OF THE RESONANCE PEAK 97 7.6 CONCLUSION 100 8. ANDERSON'S THEORY OF HIGH-T, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY 103 G.BASKARAN 103 8.1 INTRODUCTION 103 8.2 THE RVB THEORY OF 1987 104 8.3 THREE APECTS OF ANDERSON'S 1987 MECHANISM 11

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