In the recent past, many components of modern infrastructure such as transportation systems, power systems, climate and environment
monitoring systems, education systems and even government are being increasingly interconnected through information networks.
Central to the functioning of current-day information networks are strategies that facilitate distributed network information
processing objectives. In this monograph, the authors address the overarching challenge of designing efficient information
processing strategies from a fundamental network information theory viewpoint. The authors address several network communication
problems which can be considered as building blocks of networks. They consider these problems from both the data transmission
and the data storage perspectives. They devise structured coding schemes for the finite alphabet cases of these problems and
for each problem provide at least one example where they prove that the structured coding scheme is optimal, whereas the unstructured
coding scheme is strictly suboptimal. Toward studying the information-theoretic performance limits in each of these communication
scenarios, they consider two key concepts: common information and code structure. They uncover a new fundamental connection
between them, and develop the key elements of a unified coding framework.This monograph is aimed at students, researchers
and practitioners in information theory and communications. It provides an in-depth discussion of the theory and techniques
resulting in a framework that the reader can apply to further their own work.