CompTIA Linux+ Study Guide with Online Labs

Exam XK0-004

Virtual, hands-on learning labs allow you to apply your technical skills using live hardware and software hosted in the cloud. So Sybex has bundled CompTIA Linux+ labs from Practice Labs, the IT Competency Hub, with our popular CompTIA Linux+ Study Guide, Fourth Edition. Les mer
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Virtual, hands-on learning labs allow you to apply your technical skills using live hardware and software hosted in the cloud. So Sybex has bundled CompTIA Linux+ labs from Practice Labs, the IT Competency Hub, with our popular CompTIA Linux+ Study Guide, Fourth Edition. Working in these labs gives you the same experience you need to prepare for the CompTIA Linux+ Exam XK0-004 that you would face in a real-life setting. Used in addition to the book, the labs are a proven way to prepare for the certification and for work in the IT and cybersecurity fields where Linux is fundamental to modern systems and security.


This is your one-stop resource for complete coverage of Exam XK0-004, covering 100% of all exam objectives. You'll prepare for the exam smarter and faster with Sybex thanks to superior content including, assessment tests that check exam readiness, objective map, real-world scenarios, hands-on exercises, key topic exam essentials, and challenging chapter review questions.


Linux is viewed by many organizations and companies as an excellent, low-cost, secure alternative to expensive OSs, such as Microsoft Windows and is crucial to today's server and cloud infrastructure. The CompTIA Linux+ exam tests a candidate's understanding and familiarity with the Linux. As the Linux server market share continues to grow, so too does demand for qualified and certified Linux administrators.


Building on the popular Sybex Study Guide approach, this book will provide 100% coverage of the NEW Linux+ Exam XK0-004 objectives. The book contains clear and concise information on all Linux administration topic, and includes practical examples and insights drawn from real-world experience.





Hardware and System Configuration

Systems Operation and Maintenance

Security

Linux Troubleshooting and Diagnostics

Automation and Scripting



You'll also have access to an online test bank, including a bonus practice exam, electronic flashcards, and a searchable PDF of key terms.


And with this edition you also get Practice Labs virtual labs that run from your browser. The registration code is included with the book and gives you 6 months unlimited access to Practice Labs CompTIA Linux+ Exam XK0-004 Labs with 65 unique lab modules to practice your skills.

Fakta

Innholdsfortegnelse

Introduction xxix


Assessment Test xlii


Part I Gathering Your Tools 1


Chapter 1 Preparing Your Environment 3


Setting Up a Learning Space 4


Using That Old Laptop 4


Creating a Virtualized Environment 5


Jumping to the Cloud 7


Exploring Linux Distributions 8


Looking at CentOS 9


Looking at Ubuntu 10


Looking at openSUSE 12


Looking at Fedora 13


Locating a Terminal 14


Summary 14


Chapter 2 Sifting Through Services 15


What is a Linux Server? 16


Launching Services 17


Listening for Clients 18


Serving the Basics 19


Web Servers 20


Database Servers 21


Mail Servers 22


Serving Local Networks 24


File Servers 25


Print Servers 26


Network Resource Servers 26


Implementing Security 29


Authentication Server 29


Certificate Authority 30


Access Server (SSH) 31


Virtual Private Networks 31


Proxy Server 32


Monitoring 32


Improving Performance 32


Clustering 32


Load Balancing 33


Containers 33


Summary 33


Exam Essentials 34


Review Questions 35


Chapter 3 Managing Files, Directories, and Text 39


Handling Files and Directories 40


Viewing and Creating Files 40


Copying and Moving Files 45


Removing Files 52


Linking Files and Directories 55


Establishing a Hard Link 55


Constructing a Soft Link 57


Reading Files 59


Reading Entire Text Files 59


Reading Text File Portions 61


Reading Text File Pages 65


Finding Information 66


Exploring File Differences 67


Using Simple Pinpoint Commands 69


Using Intricate Pinpoint Commands 73


Summary 77


Exam Essentials 77


Review Questions 78


Chapter 4 Searching and Analyzing Text 83


Processing Text Files 84


Filtering Text 84


Formatting Text 89


Determining Word Count 93


Redirecting Input and Output 95


Handling Standard Output 95


Redirecting Standard Error 96


Regulating Standard Input 98


Piping Commands 100


Creating Here Documents 102


Creating Command Lines 103


Editing Text Files 105


Appreciating Text Editors 105


Learning About Stream Editors 110


Summary 116


Exam Essentials 117


Review Questions 118


Part II Starting Up and Configuring Your System 123


Chapter 5 Explaining the Boot Process 125


The Linux Boot Process 126


Following the Boot Process 126


Viewing the Boot Process 127


The Firmware Startup 128


The BIOS Startup 128


The UEFI Startup 129


Linux Bootloaders 130


GRUB Legacy 131


GRUB2 134


Alternative Bootloaders 136


System Recovery 137


Kernel Failures 137


Root Drive Failure 139


Summary 141


Exam Essentials 141


Review Questions 143


Chapter 6 Maintaining System Startup and Services 147


Looking at init 148


Managing systemd Systems 149


Exploring Unit Files 150


Focusing on Service Unit Files 152


Focusing on Target Unit Files 157


Looking at systemctl 159


Examining Special systemd Commands 162


Managing SysV init Systems 167


Understanding Runlevels 168


Investigating SysV init Commands 171


Digging Deeper into systemd 176


Looking at systemd Mount Units 176


Exploring Automount Units 178


Summary 179


Exam Essentials 179


Review Questions 181


Chapter 7 Configuring Network Connections 187


Configuring Network Features 188


Network Configuration Files 188


Graphical Tools 191


Command-Line Tools 193


Basic Network Troubleshooting 201


Sending Test Packets 201


Finding Host Information 202


Advanced Network Troubleshooting 205


The netstat Command 205


Examining Sockets 208


Summary 209


Exam Essentials 210


Review Questions 212


Chapter 8 Comparing GUIs 217


Focusing on the GUI 218


Getting to Know GNOME 219


Probing KDE Plasma 221


Considering Cinnamon 223


Making Acquaintance with MATE 225


Understanding Unity 227


Setting Up Accessibility 228


Serving Up the GUI 231


Figuring Out Wayland 232


Examining X11 234


Using Remote Desktops 235


Viewing VNC 236


Grasping Xrdp 238


Exploring NX 239


Studying SPICE 240


Forwarding 240


Local 242


Remote 243


Tunneling Your X11 Connection 244


Summary 245


Exam Essentials 245


Review Questions 247


Chapter 9 Adjusting Localization Options 253


Understanding Localization 254


Character Sets 254


Environment Variables 255


Setting Your Locale 256


Installation Locale Decisions 256


Changing Your Locale 257


Looking at Time 259


Working with Time Zones 259


Setting the Time and Date 260


Watching System Time 264


Summary 265


Exam Essentials 266


Review Questions 267


Part III Managing Your System 273


Chapter 10 Administering Users and Groups 275


Managing User Accounts 276


Adding Accounts 276


Maintaining Passwords 288


Modifying Accounts 290


Deleting Accounts 292


Managing Groups 294


Setting Up the Environment 297


Perusing Bash Parameters 298


Understanding User Entries 299


Grasping Global Entries 300


Querying Users 300


Exploring the whoami Utility 300


Understanding the who Utility 301


Identifying with the id Program 302


Displaying Access History with the last Utility 303


Managing Disk Space Usage 304


Summary 308


Exam Essentials 308


Review Questions 310


Chapter 11 Handling Storage 315


Storage Basics 316


Drive Connections 316


Partitioning Drives 317


Automatic Drive Detection 317


Partitioning Tools 318


Working with fdisk 318


Working with gdisk 320


The GNU parted Command 322


Graphical Tools 322


Understanding Filesystems 323


The Virtual Directory 324


Maneuvering Around the Filesystem 326


Formatting Filesystems 326


Common Filesystem Types 326


Creating Filesystems 328


Mounting Filesystems 329


Manually Mounting Devices 329


Automatically Mounting Devices 330


Managing Filesystems 331


Retrieving Filesystem Stats 331


Filesystem Tools 332


Storage Alternatives 333


Multipath 333


Logical Volume Manager 334


Using RAID Technology 336


Summary 338


Exam Essentials 338


Review Questions 340


Chapter 12 Protecting Files 343


Understanding Backup Types 344


Looking at Compression Methods 346


Comparing Archive and Restore Utilities 349


Copying with cpio 349


Archiving with tar 352


Duplicating with dd 357


Replicating with rsync 359


Securing Offsite/Off-System Backups 362


Copying Securely via scp 362


Transferring Securely via sftp 363


Checking Backup Integrity 366


Digesting an MD5 Algorithm 366


Securing Hash Algorithms 367


Summary 368


Exam Essentials 368


Review Questions 370


Chapter 13 Governing Software 373


Working with Source Code 374


Downloading Source Code 374


Bundling Source Code Packages 375


Compiling Source Code 379


Packaging Applications 380


Installing and Managing Packages 381


Understanding Repositories 385


Summary 392


Exam Essentials 393


Review Questions 394


Chapter 14 Tending Kernel Modules 397


Exploring Kernel Modules 398


Installing Kernel Modules 402


Removing Kernel Modules 404


Summary 405


Exam Essentials 405


Review Questions 407


Part IV Securing Your System 409


Chapter 15 Applying Ownership and Permissions 411


Looking at File and Directory Permissions 412


Understanding Ownership 412


Controlling Access Permissions 414


Exploring Special Permissions 417


Managing Default Permissions 418


Access Control Lists 420


Context-Based Permissions 422


Using SELinux 423


Using AppArmor 427


Understanding Linux User Types 430


Types of User Accounts 430


Escalating Privileges 430


Restricting Users 431


Summary 435


Exam Essentials 436


Review Questions 437


Chapter 16 Looking at Access and Authentication Methods 439


Getting to Know PAM 440


Exploring PAM Configuration Files 440


Enforcing Strong Passwords 444


Locking Out Accounts 447


Limiting Root Access 451


Exploring PKI Concepts 452


Getting Certificates 453


Discovering Key Concepts 453


Securing Data 454


Signing Transmissions 455


Using SSH 455


Exploring Basic SSH Concepts 456


Configuring SSH 458


Generating SSH Keys 460


Authenticating with SSH Keys 462


Authenticating with the Authentication Agent 464


Using SSH Securely 466


Using VPN as a Client 468


Summary 469


Exam Essentials 469


Review Questions 471


Chapter 17 Implementing Logging Services 473


Understanding the Importance of Logging 474


The syslog Protocol 474


The History of Linux Logging 476


Basic Logging Using rsyslog 477


Configuration 477


Making Log Entries 479


Finding Event Messages 479


Journaling with systemd-journald 480


Configuration 480


Viewing Logs 481


Summary 483


Exam Essentials 484


Review Questions 485


Chapter 18 Overseeing Linux Firewalls 487


Providing Access Control 488


Looking at Firewall Technologies 490


Familiarizing Yourself with firewalld 491


Investigating iptables 495


Understanding UFW 500


Forwarding IP Packets 505


Dynamically Setting Rules 506


DenyHosts 506


Fail2ban 506


IPset 507


Summary 508


Exam Essentials 508


Review Questions 510


Chapter 19 Embracing Best Security Practices 513


User Security 514


Authentication Methods 514


Multifactor Authentication 516


Unique User Accounts 517


Restricting the root Account 517


System Security 518


Separation of Data 518


Disk Encryption 519


Restricting Applications 520


Preventing Unauthorized Rebooting 520


Restricting Unapproved Jobs 522


Banners and Messages 523


Restricting USB Devices 523


Looking for Trouble 524


Auditing 524


Network Security 525


Denying Hosts 525


Disabling Unused Services 525


Changing Default Ports 526


Using Encryption on the Network 526


Summary 528


Exam Essentials 528


Review Questions 530


Part V Troubleshooting Your System 533


Chapter 20 Analyzing System Properties and Remediation 535


Troubleshooting the Network 536


Exploring Network Issues 536


Viewing Network Performance 540


Reviewing the Network's Configuration 546


Troubleshooting Storage Issues 549


Running Out of Filesystem Space 549


Waiting on Disk I/O 550


Failing Disks 553


Troubleshooting the CPU 554


Troubleshooting Memory 556


Swapping 556


Running Out of Memory 560


Surviving a Lost root Password 560


Summary 562


Exam Essentials 562


Review Questions 563


Chapter 21 Optimizing Performance 567


Looking at Processes 568


Monitoring Processes in Real Time 570


Managing Processes 573


Setting Priorities 574


Stopping Processes 574


Summary 577


Exam Essentials 577


Review Questions 579


Chapter 22 Investigating User Issues 581


Troubleshooting Access 582


Local 582


Remote 586


Authentication 587


Examining File Obstacles 588


File Permissions 588


Directory Permissions 589


File Creation 590


Exploring Environment and Shell Issues 591


Summary 593


Exam Essentials 593


Review Questions 594


Chapter 23 Dealing with Linux Devices 597


Communicating with Linux Devices 598


Device Interfaces 598


The /dev Directory 600


The /proc Directory 601


The /sys Directory 604


Working with Devices 605


Finding Devices 605


Working with PCI Cards 608


Working with USB Devices 609


Supporting Monitors 610


Using Printers 611


Using Hot Pluggable Devices 613


Detecting Dynamic Devices 613


Working with Dynamic Devices 614


Summary 615


Exam Essentials 616


Review Questions 617


Chapter 24 Troubleshooting Application and Hardware Issues 619


Dealing with Storage Problems 620


Exploring Common Issues 620


Dealing with Specialized Issues 622


Uncovering Application Permission Issues 626


Analyzing Application Dependencies 628


Versioning 629


Updating Issues 629


Patching 630


Dealing with Libraries 630


Exploring Environment Variable Issues 631


Gaining GCC Compatibility 631


Perusing Repository Problems 632


Looking at SELinux Context Violations 633


Exploring Firewall Blockages 633


Unrestricting ACLs 633


Unblocking Ports 634


Unblocking Protocols 635


Troubleshooting Additional Hardware Issues 635


Looking at Helpful Hardware Commands 635


Investigating Other Hardware Problems 639


Summary 643


Exam Essentials 643


Review Questions 645


Part VI Automating Your System 649


Chapter 25 Deploying Bash Scripts 651


The Basics of Shell Scripting 652


Running Multiple Commands 652


Redirecting Output 653


Piping Data 654


The Shell Script Format 655


Running the Shell Script 656


Advanced Shell Scripting 657


Displaying Messages 657


Using Variables 658


Command-Line Arguments 661


The Exit Status 662


Writing Script Programs 663


Command Substitution 663


Performing Math 664


Logic Statements 666


Loops 669


Summary 673


Exam Essentials 674


Review Questions 675


Chapter 26 Automating Jobs 677


Running Scripts in Background Mode 678


Running in the Background 678


Running Multiple Background Jobs 679


Running Scripts Without a Console 680


Sending Signals 681


Interrupting a Process 682


Pausing a Process 682


Job Control 683


Viewing Jobs 683


Restarting Stopped Jobs 686


Running Like Clockwork 687


Scheduling a Job Using the at Command 687


Scheduling Regular Scripts 690


Summary 692


Exam Essentials 693


Review Questions 694


Chapter 27 Controlling Versions with Git 697


Understanding Version Control 698


Setting Up Your Git Environment 700


Committing with Git 703


Merging Versions 710


Summary 713


Exam Essentials 713


Review Questions 715


Part VII Realizing Virtual and Cloud Environments 717


Chapter 28 Understanding Cloud and Virtualization Concepts 719


Considering Cloud Services 720


What is Cloud Computing? 720


What Are the Cloud Services? 721


Understanding Virtualization 723


Hypervisors 723


Types of Hypervisors 725


Hypervisor Templates 726


Exploring Containers 727


What Are Containers? 727


Container Software 728


Container Templates 729


Exercise 729


Summary 730


Exam Essentials 731


Review Questions 732


Chapter 29 Inspecting Cloud and Virtualization Services 735


Focusing on VM Tools 736


Looking at libvirt 736


Viewing virsh 737


Managing with Virtual Machine Manager 738


Understanding Bootstrapping 740


Booting with Shell Scripts 740


Kick-Starting with Anaconda 741


Initializing with Cloud-init 744


Exploring Storage Issues 746


Considering Network Configurations 747


Virtualizing the Network 747


Configuring Virtualized NICs 748


Summary 750


Exam Essentials 751


Review Questions 752


Chapter 30 Orchestrating the Environment 755


Understanding Orchestration Concepts 756


Probing Procedures 757


Analyzing Attributes 758


Provisioning the Data Center 760


Coding the Infrastructure 761


Automating the Infrastructure 762


Comparing Agent and Agentless 762


Investigating the Inventory 763


Looking at Container Orchestration Engines 763


Embracing Kubernetes 763


Inspecting Docker Swarm 764


Surveying Mesos 764


Summary 765


Exam Essentials 765


Review Questions 766


Appendix Answers to Review Questions 769


Chapter 2: Sifting Through Services 770


Chapter 3: Managing Files, Directories, and Text 773


Chapter 4: Searching and Analyzing Text 777


Chapter 5: Explaining the Boot Process 781


Chapter 6: Maintaining System Startup and Services 784


Chapter 7: Configuring Network Connections 788


Chapter 8: Comparing GUIs 791


Chapter 9: Adjusting Localization Options 795


Chapter 10: Administering Users and Groups 798


Chapter 11: Handling Storage 801


Chapter 12: Protecting Files 803


Chapter 13: Governing Software 804


Chapter 14: Tending Kernel Modules 806


Chapter 15: Applying Ownership and Permissions 808


Chapter 16: Looking at Access and Authentication Methods 810


Chapter 17: Implementing Logging Services 811


Chapter 18: Overseeing Linux Firewalls 813


Chapter 19: Embracing Best Security Practices 815


Chapter 20: Embracing Best Security Practices 817


Chapter 21: Optimizing Performance 818


Chapter 22: Investigating User Issues 820


Chapter 23: Dealing with Linux Devices 822


Chapter 24: Troubleshooting Application and Hardware Issues 824


Chapter 25: Deploying Bash Scripts 826


Chapter 26: Automating Jobs 827


Chapter 27: Controlling Versions with Git 829


Chapter 28: Understanding Cloud and Virtualization Concepts 831


Chapter 29: Inspecting Cloud and Virtualization Services 832


Chapter 30: Orchestrating the Environment 834


Index 837

Om forfatteren

CHRISTINE BRESNAHAN, LINUX+, started working with computers more than 30 years ago as a system administrator. She is an Adjunct Professor at Ivy Tech Community College, where she teaches Linux Essentials, CompTIA Linux+ certification, and Python classes.
RICHARD BLUM, LINUX+, is a 30-year IT industry veteran, as both systems and network administrator for UNIX, Linux, and Microsoft servers. Rich is widely published on Linux and open source software and is an online Linux instructor for universities nationwide.
Wiley has partnered up with Practice Labs, the IT Competency Hub, to give IT learners discounted access to their live, virtual Practice Labs. Connect to real devices using actual hardware and software straight from a web browser. Practice Labs allow you to cement your theoretical studies with practical, hands-on experience. Master your IT skills and gain virtual work experience to increase your employability. Each purchase provides 6 months' unlimited access. Ready to practice your IT skills?