LPI Linux Essentials Study Guide

Exam 010 v1.6

; Richard Blum

Provides a solid foundation for those considering a career in IT-covers the objectives of the new Linux Essentials Exam 010-160 v1.6


Linux is a secure, reliable, open source alternative to costly operating systems such as Microsoft Windows. Les mer
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Om boka

Provides a solid foundation for those considering a career in IT-covers the objectives of the new Linux Essentials Exam 010-160 v1.6


Linux is a secure, reliable, open source alternative to costly operating systems such as Microsoft Windows. As large organizations worldwide continue to add Linux servers, the need for IT professionals skilled in Linux continues to grow. The LPI Linux Essentials Study Guide is a valuable resource for anyone preparing to take the new Linux Essentials Exam-the entry-level certification from The Linux Professional Institute (LPI) which validates knowledge of Linux concepts and applications.


Written by recognized experts on Linux and open source technologies, this accessible, user-friendly guide covers desktop skills, the command line, directories and files, networks, scripting, security, users and permissions, and much more. Clear, concise chapters provide numerous hands-on tutorials, real-world examples, color illustrations, and practical end-of-chapter exercises and review questions. An ideal introduction for those new to Linux or considering a career in IT, this guide helps readers:





Learn the operation and components of Linux desktops and servers

Understand open source software, licensing, and applications

Configure networks, security, cloud services, storage, and devices

Create users and groups and set permissions and ownership

Use the command line and build automation scripts



LPI Linux Essentials Study Guide: Exam 010 v1.6 is perfect for anyone beginning a career in IT, newcomers to Linux, students in computer courses, and system administrators working with other operating systems wanting to learn more about Linux and other open source solutions.

Fakta

Innholdsfortegnelse

Introduction xix


Assessment Test xxix


Chapter 1 Selecting an Operating System 1


What is an OS? 2


What is a Kernel? 2


What Else Identifies an OS? 3


Investigating User Interfaces 4


Using a Text-Mode User Interface 5


Using a Graphical User Interface 7


Where Does Linux Fit in the OS World? 9


Comparing Linux to Unix 9


Comparing Linux to macOS 11


Comparing Linux to Windows 12


What is a Distribution? 14


Creating a Complete Linux-Based OS 14


A Summary of Common Linux Distributions 15


Understanding Release Cycles 17


Embedded Linux Systems 18


Linux in the Cloud 19


What is Cloud Computing? 19


What Are the Cloud Services? 21


Summary 23


Exam Essentials 23


Review Questions 25


Chapter 2 Understanding Software Licensing 27


Investigating Software Licenses 28


Exploring Copyright Protection and Software 28


Using Licenses to Modify Copyright Terms 30


Looking at the Free Software Foundation 31


Understanding the FSF Philosophy 31


Examining Free Software and the GPL 32


Looking at the Open Source Initiative 33


Understanding the Open Source Philosophy 33


Defining Open Source Software 35


Looking at the Creative Commons 36


Using Open Source Licenses 36


Understanding Open Source Licenses 36


Understanding Open Source Business Models 38


Summary 39


Exam Essentials 40


Review Questions 41


Chapter 3 Investigating Linux's Principles and Philosophy 43


Linux Through the Ages 44


Understanding Linux's Origins 44


Seeing Today's Linux World 47


Using Open Source Software 47


Understanding Basic Open Source Principles 47


Linux as a Software Integrator 49


Understanding OS Roles 50


Looking At Embedded Computers 50


Exploring Desktop and Laptop Computers 51


Investigating Server Computers 52


Summary 53


Exam Essentials 53


Review Questions 55


Chapter 4 Using Common Linux Programs 57


Using a Linux Desktop Environment 58


Choosing a Desktop Environment 58


Launching Programs 61


Using a File Manager 63


Working with Productivity Software 66


Finding the Right Tool for the Job 66


Using a Web Browser 67


Using Email Clients 68


Using Office Tools 68


Using Multimedia Applications 69


Using Linux for Cloud Computing 70


Using Mobile Applications 71


Using Server Programs 72


Identifying Common Server Protocols and Programs 72


Focusing on Web Servers 76


Installing and Launching Servers 76


Securing Servers 77


Managing Programming Languages 78


Choosing a Compiled vs. an Interpreted Language 78


Identifying Common Programming Languages 79


Handling Software Packages 81


Understanding Software Packages 81


Identifying Common Package Tools 81


Summary 82


Exam Essentials 83


Review Questions 84


Chapter 5 Getting to Know the Command Line 87


Starting a Command Line 88


Launching a Terminal 88


Logging into a Text-Mode Console 91


Running Programs 92


Understanding Text-Mode Program Syntax 93


Running Text-Mode Programs 94


Running GUI Programs 95


Running Programs in the Background 96


Using Shell Features 97


Using Command Completion 97


Using Command History 98


Getting Help Using Man Pages 99


Understanding the Purpose of Man Pages 100


Locating Man Pages by Section Number 100


Searching for a Man Page 102


Reading Man Pages 102


Using less 104


Getting Help Using Info Pages 106


Understanding the Purpose of Info Pages 106


Reading Info Pages 107


Finding Additional Documentation 109


Locating Program Documentation on Your Computer 109


Locating Program Documentation Online 112


Consulting Experts 112


Summary 114


Exam Essentials 114


Review Questions 116


Chapter 6 Managing Hardware 119


Learning About Your CPU 120


Understanding CPU Families 120


Identifying Your CPU 123


Identifying Motherboard Capabilities 123


Sizing Your Power Supply 125


Understanding Disk Issues 125


Disk Interfaces 126


Partitioning a Disk 127


Understanding Filesystem Issues 130


Using Removable and Optical Disks 133


Managing Displays 134


Understanding the Role of X 134


Using Common Display Hardware 136


Handling USB Devices 137


Managing Drivers 138


Understanding Types of Drivers 138


Locating and Installing Drivers 139


Summary 140


Exam Essentials 140


Review Questions 141


Chapter 7 Managing Files 143


Understanding Where Things Go 144


User Files vs. System Files 144


The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard 146


Important Directories and Their Contents 147


Exploring Files and Directories 149


Obtaining File Listings 149


Changing Directories 151


Using Absolute and Relative File References 152


Manipulating Files 154


Creating Files 154


Copying Files 155


Moving and Renaming Files 157


Using Links 157


Deleting Files 159


Using Wildcards 160


Understanding Case Sensitivity 160


Manipulating Directories 161


Creating Directories 161


Deleting Directories 162


Managing Directories 163


Summary 164


Exam Essentials 164


Review Questions 165


Chapter 8 Searching, Extracting, and Archiving Data 167


Using Regular Expressions 168


Searching For and Extracting Data 170


Using grep 170


Using find 172


Using wc 174


Using cut 175


Using sort 176


Using cat 177


Redirecting Input and Output 178


Using Basic Redirection Operators 178


Using Pipes 181


Generating Command Lines 182


Archiving Data 183


Using tar 183


Using Compression 187


Using zip 188


Summary 191


Exam Essentials 191


Review Questions 193


Chapter 9 Exploring Processes and Process Data 195


Understanding Package Management 196


Linux Package Management Principles 196


Understanding Package Systems 197


Managing Red Hat Systems 199


Managing Debian Systems 200


Understanding the Process Hierarchy 202


Identifying Running Processes 203


Using ps to Identify Processes 203


Using top to Identify Processes 205


Measuring Memory Use 207


Using Log Files 208


Locating Log Files 209


Producing More Verbose Log File Entries 210


Examining the Kernel Ring Buffer 211


Summary 211


Exam Essentials 212


Review Questions 213


Chapter 10 Editing Files 215


Understanding the Role of Text Files 216


Choosing an Editor 218


Editing Files with nano 219


Using Text Editor Conventions 221


Exploring Basic nano Text-Editing Procedures 221


Saving Your Changes from nano 223


Editing Files with vi 224


Understanding vi Modes 224


Exploring Basic vi Text-Editing Procedures 226


Saving Your Changes from vi 229


Summary 230


Exam Essentials 230


Review Questions 231


Chapter 11 Creating Scripts 233


Beginning a Shell Script 234


Using Commands 235


Using Arguments 237


Using Variables 238


Using Conditional Expressions 241


Using Loops 243


Using Functions 244


Setting the Script's Exit Value 245


Summary 246


Exam Essentials 246


Review Questions 248


Chapter 12 Understanding Basic Security 251


Understanding Accounts 252


Understanding Account Features 253


Identifying Accounts 256


Understanding Groups 258


Using Account Tools 259


Discovering Your Own Identity 260


Learning Who's Online 261


Working as root 263


Understanding User Types 263


Acquiring root Privileges 264


Using root Privileges Safely 266


Summary 268


Exam Essentials 268


Review Questions 270


Chapter 13 Creating Users and Groups 273


Creating New Accounts 274


Deciding on a Group Strategy 274


Selecting a Good Password 275


Creating Accounts Using GUI Tools 278


Creating Accounts from the Shell 280


Modifying Accounts 283


Deciding When to Modify Accounts 283


Checking for Logged-in Users 283


Modifying Accounts Using GUI Tools 284


Modifying Accounts from the Shell 286


Deleting Accounts 289


Avoiding Account Deletion Pitfalls 289


Deleting Accounts Using GUI Tools 290


Deleting Accounts from the Shell 291


Managing Groups 291


Managing Groups Using GUI Tools 291


Managing Groups from the Shell 294


Summary 295


Exam Essentials 295


Review Questions 297


Chapter 14 Setting Ownership and Permissions 299


Setting Ownership 300


Understanding Ownership 300


Setting Ownership in a File Manager 301


Setting Ownership in a Shell 302


Setting Permissions 304


Understanding Permissions 304


Setting Permissions in a File Manager 308


Setting Permissions in a Shell 309


Setting the umask 310


Using Special Permission Bits and File Features 310


Using Sticky Bits 311


Using Special Execute Permissions 313


Hiding Files from View 314


Viewing Directories 315


Summary 315


Exam Essentials 315


Review Questions 317


Chapter 15 Managing Network Connections 319


Configuring Network Features 320


Graphical Tools 321


Command-Line Tools 323


Basic Network Troubleshooting 329


Sending Test Packets 330


Finding Host Information 331


Advanced Network Troubleshooting 333


The netstat Command 334


Examining Sockets 337


Summary 337


Exam Essentials 338


Review Questions 339


Appendix A Answers to Review Questions 341


Chapter 1: Selecting an Operating System 342


Chapter 2: Understanding Software Licensing 343


Chapter 3: Investigating Linux's Principles and Philosophy 344


Chapter 4: Using Common Linux Programs 346


Chapter 5: Getting to Know the Command Line 347


Chapter 6: Managing Hardware 348


Chapter 7: Managing Files 349


Chapter 8: Searching, Extracting, and Archiving Data 351


Chapter 9: Exploring Processes and Process Data 352


Chapter 10: Editing Files 353


Chapter 11: Creating Scripts 354


Chapter 12: Understanding Basic Security 356


Chapter 13: Creating Users and Groups 357


Chapter 14: Setting Ownership and Permissions 358


Chapter 15: Managing Network Connections 359


Appendix B Setting Up a Linux Environment 363


Index 365

Om forfatteren

Christine Bresnahan is an Adjunct Professor at Ivy Tech Community College, where she teaches Linux certification and Python classes. She is the author of several books, including LPIC-1 Study Guide, Fifth edition and LPIC-2 Study Guide, Second edition.


Richard Blum has worked as a system and network administrator for over 30 years. He is the author of several Linux books, including Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible and Linux for Dummies, 9th edition, and is a popular online Linux instructor.