We have witnessed a digital revolution that affects the dynamics of existing traditional social, economic, political and legal
systems. This revolution has transformed espionage and its features, such as its purpose and targets, methods and means, and
actors and incidents, which paves the way for the emergence of the term cyberespionage. This book seeks to address domestic
and international legal tools appropriate to adopt in cases of cyberespionage incidents. Cyberespionage operations of state
or non-state actors are a kind of cyber attack, which violates certain principles of international law but also constitute
wrongful acquisition and misappropriation of the data. Therefore, from the use of force to state responsibility, international
law offers a wide array of solutions; likewise, domestic regulations through either specialized laws or general principles
stipulate civil and criminal remedies against cyberespionage.
Confronting Cyberespionage Under International
Law examines how espionage and its applications have transformed since World War II and how domestic and international legal
mechanisms can provide effective legal solutions to this change, hindering the economic development and well-being of individuals,
companies and states to the detriment of others. It shows the latest state of knowledge on the topic and will be of interest
to researchers, academics, legal practitioners, legal advisors and students in the fields of international law, information
technology law and intellectual property law.