Slavery and Islam

«<p>‘<em>Slavery & Islam</em> hints at some of the great questions that are still outstanding in this field.’</p>»

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What happens when authorities you venerate condone something you know is wrong?



Every major religion and philosophy once condoned or approved of slavery, but in modern times nothing is seen as more evil. Les mer
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What happens when authorities you venerate condone something you know is wrong?



Every major religion and philosophy once condoned or approved of slavery, but in modern times nothing is seen as more evil. Americans confront this crisis of authority when they erect statues of Founding Fathers who slept with their slaves. And Muslims faced it when ISIS revived sex slavery, justifying it with verses from the Quran and the practice of Muhammad.



Exploring the moral and ultimately theological problem of slavery, Jonathan A.C. Brown traces how the Christian, Jewish and Islamic traditions have tried to reconcile modern moral certainties with the infallibility of God's message. He lays out how Islam viewed slavery in theory, and the reality of how it was practiced across Islamic civilization. Finally, Brown carefully examines arguments put forward by Muslims for the abolition of slavery.

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«<p>‘<em>Slavery & Islam</em> hints at some of the great questions that are still outstanding in this field.’</p>»

Literary Review

«<p>‘For any system of belief that vests ultimate authority in the past, slavery is a big moral problem… For several reasons, this dilemma is an acute one for Muslims, as emerges in [this] scholarly but digestible new book.’</p>»

The Economist

«<p>‘A prodigiously researched, provocatively argued, learned and multi-faceted treatment of a difficult and complex problem. One might not agree with all of Brown’s conclusions, but the book will be a must-read for students and scholars of historical and contemporary Islam, as well as for anyone interested in slavery and its relationship to religion.’</p>»

«<p>‘This insightful, courageous and comprehensively argued book is bound to constitute a new beginning. It is certain to be as widely debated as it is widely read. And we will all be all the better for it.’</p>»

«<p>‘A must-read for students and scholars of slavery in historical and contemporary Islam, as well as for anyone interested in slavery and its relationship to religion… <em>Slavery & Islam</em> is a thoughtful, well-researched, and well-written elucidation of a very difficult problem.’</p>»

Journal of Islamic Ethics

Innholdsfortegnelse

Preface



Acknowledgments



Notes on transliteration, dates and citation







Introduction: Can We Talk About Slavery?



What I Argue in this Book



Apology for Slavery?



Power and the Study of Slavery



Blackness, Whiteness and Slavery







1 Does 'Slavery' Exist? The Problem of Definition



The Main Argument



Definition: A Creative Process



Definition to Discourse: A Political Process



Defining \ sla-v(a-)re\: We Know It When We See It



Defining Slavery as Status or a Condition



Slavery as Unfreedom



Slavery as Human Property



Patterson & Natal Alienation



Slavery as Distinction: The Lowest Rung & Marginality



Slavery as Coercion & Exploitation under the Threat of Violence



The Problem with Modern-Day Slavery



Slavery & Islam - A Very Political Question



Conclusion: Of Course, Slavery Exists



The Proper Terms for Speaking about 'Slavery'







2 Slavery in the Shariah



What Islam Says about Slavery - Ideals and Reality



Slavery in the Quran & Sunna



Inheriting the Near East - Roman, Jewish and Near Eastern Laws versus Islam



Islam's Reform of Slavery



Basic Principles of Riqq in the Shariah



The Ambiguities of Slavery in the Shariah



Riqq & Rights in the Shariah



Religious Practice



Freedom of Movement



Social and Political Roles



Marriage and Family Life



Right to Property



Rights to Life and Physical Protection



Summary: Law and Ethics







3 Slavery in Islamic Civilization



What is Islamic Civilization?



Is there 'Islamic Slavery'?



The Shariah & Islamic Slavery



Muslims Enslaving Muslims



The Classic Slavery Zone



Consuming People & 'Ascending Miscegenation'



Slave Populations



Routes of the Muslim Slave Trade



Blackness and Slavery in Islamic Civilization



The Roles and Experiences of Slaves in Islamic Civilization



The Slave as Uprooted Person and Commodity



The Slave as Domestic Labor . . . Even Trusted Member of a Household



Slave as Sexual Partner



Slave as Saint, Scholar or Poet



Slave as Elite Administrator & Courtesan



Slave as Soldier - When Soldiers often Ruled



Slave as Rebel







4 The Slavery Conundrum



No Squaring the Circle: The American/Islamic Slavery Conundrum



Slavery is Evil



The Intrinsic Wrongs of Slavery



Religions and Slavery



Minimizing the Unminimizable or Historicizing the Unhistoricizable



Slavery is Slavery: The Problem of Labeling 'Slavery' with One Moral Judgment



The Moral Wrongness of Slavery as Unfreedom



The Moral Wrongness of Slavery as Owning Human Property



The Moral Wrongness of Slavery as Inequality



The Moral Wrongness of Slavery as the Threat of Violence



The Bald Man Fallacy and the Wrongness of Slavery



When Slavery is 'Not that Bad': The Problem with Conditions vs. Formal Categories



Do Some People Deserve to be Enslaved?



Or, Is Freedom a Human Right?



The Past as Moral Authority: Can We Part with the Past?



The Natural Law Tradition and Slavery



Critics of Slavery and the Call for Abolition



The Consequences of Moral Progress



Muslim Efforts to Salvage the Past







5 Abolishing Slavery in Islam



Is Abolition Indigenous to Islam or Not?



Islam as Emancipatory Force - An Alternative History



Abolishing Slavery . . . For Whom? Concentric Circles of Abolition



'The Lawgiver Looks Expectantly Towards Freedom' - Abolition as an Aim of the Shariah



Doubling Down - Progressive Islam & the Axiomatic Evil of Slavery



Prohibited by the Ruler but Not by God: The Crucial Matter of Taqyid al-Mubah



If You Can't Do it Right, You Can't Do it at All - Prohibiting Riqq Poorly Done



Same Shariah, Diff erent Conditions - The Obsolescence or Unfavorability of Slavery



Slavery: A Moot Point & Bad PR



Defending Slavery in Islam







6 The Prophet & ISIS: Evaluating Muslim Abolition



Do Muslim Approaches to Abolition Pass Moral Muster?



A Consensus on Abolition



Could Slavery in Islam ever be Unabolished?



Abolition vs. ISIS



This Author's Opinion







7 Concubines and Consent: Can We Solve the Moral Problem of Slavery?



Species of Moral Change



Moral Disgust at Slavery Today



Conclusion & Crisis: Concubinage and Consent



Consent and Concubines



Disbelief is Unproductive







Appendix 1 - A Slave Saint of Basra



Appendix 2 - Enlightenment Thinkers on Slavery



Appendix 3 - Did the 1926 Muslim World Congress Condemn Slavery?



Appendix 4 - Was Mariya the Wife or Concubine of the Prophet?



Appendix 5 - Was Freedom a Human Right in the Shariah?



Appendix 6 - Enslavement of Apostate Muslims or Muslims Declared to be Unbelievers







Select Bibliography



Notes



Index

Om forfatteren

Jonathan A.C. Brown is Associate Professor of Islamic Studies and the Alwaleed bin Talal Chair of Islamic Civilization in the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. His previous books include Misquoting Muhammad and Hadith: Muhammad's Legacy in the Medieval and Modern World, both of which are published by Oneworld. He lives in Virginia.