Among the various multi-level formulations of mathematical models in decision making processes, this book focuses on the bi-level
model. Being the most frequently used, the bi-level model addresses conflicts which exist in multi-level decision making processes.
From the perspective of bi-level structure and uncertainty, this book takes real-life problems as the background, focuses
on the so-called random-like uncertainty, and develops the general framework of random-like bi-level decision making problems.
The random-like uncertainty considered in this book includes random phenomenon, random-overlapped random (Ra-Ra) phenomenon
and fuzzy-overlapped random (Ra-Fu) phenomenon. Basic theory, models, algorithms and practical applications for different
types of random-like bi-level decision making problems are also presented in this book.