Handbook of Applied Cryptography - Alfred J. Menezes

Handbook of Applied Cryptography

; Paul C. van Oorschot ; Scott A. Vanstone ; Kenneth H. Rosen

Cryptography, in particular public-key cryptography, has emerged an important discipline that is not only the subject of an enormous amount of research, but provides the foundation for information security in many applications. Les mer
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Cryptography, in particular public-key cryptography, has emerged an important discipline that is not only the subject of an enormous amount of research, but provides the foundation for information security in many applications. This title provides a treatment that introduces the practical aspects of both conventional and public-key cryptography.
Forlag: CRC Press Inc
Innbinding: Innbundet
Språk: Engelsk
Sider: 810
ISBN: 9780849385230
Format: 25 x 18 cm

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"…very well suited for the reader who wants an encyclopedic description of the state of the art of applied modern cryptography."
-Mathematical Reviews, Issue 99g

"[This book] is an incredible achievement. … [T]he handbook is complete. If I want to check what problems there were with a proposed system, determine how the variations on a particular algorithm developed, see what research preceded and followed an idea, I go to the Handbook. The Handbook has accurate, clear, and correct information. It is wonderful. … If I were limited to only one cryptography text on my shelves, it would be the Handbook of Applied Cryptography."
- Bulletin of the AMS


Foreword by Ronald L. Rivest
Overview of Cryptography
Information security and cryptography
Background on functions
Functions(1-1, one-way, trapdoor one-way)
Basic terminology and concepts
Symmetric-key encryption
Overview of block ciphers and stream ciphers
Substitution ciphers and transposition ciphers
Composition of ciphers
Stream ciphers
The key space
Digital signatures
Authentication and identification
Data origin authentication
Public-key cryptography
Public-key encryption
The necessity of authentication in public-key systems
Digital signatures from reversible public-key encryption
Symmetric-key versus public-key cryptography
Hash functions
Protocols and mechanisms
Key establishment, management, and certification
Key management through symmetric-key techniques
Key management through public-key techniques
Trusted third parties and public-key certificates
Pseudorandom numbers and sequences
Classes of attacks and security models
Attacks on encryption schemes
Attacks on protocols
Models for evaluating security
Perspective for computational security
Notes and further references
Mathematical Background
Probability theory
Basic definitions
Conditional probability
Random variables
Binomial distribution
Birthday attacks
Random mappings
Information theory
Mutual information
Complexity theory
Basic definitions
Asymptotic notation
Complexity classes
Randomized algorithms
Number theory
The integers
Algorithms in Z
The integers modulo n
Algorithms in Zn
The Legendre and Jacobi symbols
Blum integers
Abstract algebra
Polynomial rings
Vector spaces
Finite fields
Basic properties
The Euclidean algorithm for polynomials
Arithmetic of polynomials
Notes and further references
Number-Theoretic Reference Problems
Introduction and overview
The integer factorization problem
Trial division
Pollard's rho factoring algorithm
Pollard's p - 1 factoring algorithm
Elliptic curve factoring
Random square factoring methods
Quadratic sieve factoring
Number field sieve factoring
The RSA problem
The quadratic residuosity problem
Computing square roots in Zn
Case (i): n prime
Case (ii): n composite
The discrete logarithm problem
Exhaustive search
Baby-step giant-step algorithm
Pollard's rho algorithm for logarithms
Pohlig-Hellman algorithm
Index-calculus algorithm
Discrete logarithm problem in subgroups of Z*p
The Diffie-Hellman problem
Composite moduli
Computing individual bits
The discrete logarithm problem in Z*p - individual bits
The RSA problem - individual bits
The Rabin problem - individual bits
The subset sum problem
The L3-Iattice basis reduction algorithm
Solving subset sum problems of low density
Simultaneous diophantine approximation
Factoring polynomials over finite fields
Square-free factorization
Beriekamp's Q-matrix algorithm
Notes and further references
Public-Key Parameters
Generating large prime numbers naively
Distribution of prime numbers
Probabilistic primality tests
Fermat's test
Solovay-Strassen test
Miller-Rabin test
Comparison: Fermat, Solovay-Strassen and Miller-Rabin
(True) Primality tests
Testing Mersenne numbers
Primality testing using the factorization of n - 1
Jacobi sum test
Tests using elliptic curves
Prime number generation
Random search for probable primes
Strong primes
NIST method for generating DSA primes
Constructive techniques for provable primes
Irreducible polynomials over Zp
Irreducible polynomials
Irreducible trinomials
Primitive polynomials
Generators and elements of high order
Selecting a prime p and generator of Z*p
Notes and further references
Pseudorandom Bits and Sequences
Classification and framework
Random bit generation
Pseudorandom bit generation
ANSI X9.17
FIPS 186
Statistical tests
The normal and chi-square distributions
Hypothesis testing
Golomb's randomness postulates
Five basic tests
Maurer's universal statistical test
Cryptographically secure pseudorandom bit generation
RSA pseudorandom bit generator
Blum-Blum-Shub pseudorandom bit generator
Notes and further references
Stream Ciphers
Feedback shift registers
Linear feedback shift registers
Linear complexity
Berlekamp-Massey algorithm
Nonlinear feedback shift registers
Stream ciphers based on LFSRs
Nonlinear combination generators
Nonlinear filter generators
Clock-controlled generators
Other stream ciphers
Notes and further references
Block Ciphers
Introduction and overview
Background and general concepts
Introduction to block ciphers
Modes of operation
Exhaustive key search and multiple encryption
Classical ciphers and historical development
Transposition ciphers
Substitution ciphers
Polyalphabetic substitutions and Vigenere ciphers
Polyalphabetic cipher machines and rotors (historical)
Cryptanalysis of classical ciphers
Product ciphers and Feistel ciphers
DES algorithm
DES properties and strength
SAFER, RC5, and other block ciphers
Other block ciphers
Notes and further references
Public-Key Encryption
Basic principles
RSA public-key encryption
Security of RSA
RSA encryption in practice
Rabin public-key encryption
ElGamal public-key encryption
Basic ElGamal encryption
Generalized ElGamal encryption
McEliece public-key encryption
Knapsack public-key encryption
Merkle-Hellman knapsack encryption
Chor-Rivest knapsack encryption
Probabilistic public-key encryption
Goldwasser-Micali probabilistic encryption
Blum-Goldwasser probabilistic encryption
Plaintext-aware encryption
Notes and further references
Hash Functions and Data Integrity
Classification and framework
General classification
Basic properties and definitions
Hash properties required for specific applications
One-way functions and compression functions
Relationships between properties
Other hash function properties and applications
Basic constructions and general results
General model for iterated hash functions
General constructions and extensions
Formatting and initialization details
Security objectives and basic attacks
Bitsizes required for practical security
Unkeyed hash functions (MDCs)
Hash functions based on block ciphers
Customized hash functions based on MD4
Hash functions based on modular arithmetic
Keyed hash functions (MACS)
MACs based on block ciphers
Constructing MACs from MDCs
Customized MACs
MACs for stream ciphers
Data integrity and message authentication
Background and definitions
Non-malicious vs. malicious threats to data integrity
Data integrity using a MAC alone
Data integrity using an MDC and an authentic channel
Data integrity combined with encryption
Advanced attacks on hash functions
Birthday attacks
Pseudo-collisions and compression function attacks
Chaining attacks
Attacks based on properties of underlying cipher
Notes and further references
Identification and Entity Authentication
Identification objectives and applications
Properties of identification protocols
Passwords (weak authentication)
Fixed password schemes: techniques
Fixed password schemes: attacks
Case study - UNIX passwords
PINs and passkeys
One-time passwords (towards strong authentication)
Challenge-response identification (strong authentication)
Background on time-variant parameters
Challenge-response by symmetric-key techniques
Challenge-response by public-key techniques
Customized and zero-knowledge identification protocols
Overview of zero-knowledge concepts
Feige-Fiat-Shamir identification protocol
GQ identification protocol
Schnorr identification protocol
Comparison: Fiat-Shamir, GQ, and Schnorr
Attacks on identification protocols
Notes and further references
Digital Signatures
A framework for digital signature mechanisms
Basic definitions
Digital signatures schemes with appendix
Digital signature schemes with message recovery
Types of attacks on signature schemes
RSA and related signature schemes
The RSA signature scheme
Possible attacks on RSA signatures
RSA signatures in practice
The Rabin public-key signature scheme
ISO/lEC 9796 formatting
PKCS #1 formatting
Fiat-Shamir signature schemes
Feige-Fiat-Shamir signature scheme
GQ signature scheme
The DSA and related signature schemes
The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA)
The ElGamal signature scheme
The generalized ElGamal signature scheme
The Schnorr signature scheme
The ElGamal signature scheme with message recovery
One-time digital signatures
The Rabin one-time signature scheme
The Merkle one-time signature scheme
Authentication trees and one-time signatures
The GMR one-time signature scheme
Other signature schemes
Arbitrated digital signatures
Signatures with additional functionality
Blind signature schemes
Undeniable signature schemes
Fail-stop signature schemes
Notes and further references
Key Establishment Protocols
Classification and framework
General classification and fundamental concepts
Objectives and properties
Assumptions and adversaries in key establishment protocols
Key transport based on symmetric encryption
Symmetric key transport and derivation without a server
Kerberos and related server-based protocols
Key agreement based on symmetric techniques
Key transport based on public-key encryption
Key transport using PK encryption without signatures
Protocols combining PK encryption and signatures
Hybrid key transport protocols using PK encryption
Key agreement based on asymmetric techniques
Diffie-Hellman and related key agreement protocols
Implicitly-certified public keys
Diffie-Hellman protocols using implicitly certified keys
Secret sharing
Simple shared control schemes
Threshold schemes
Generalized secret sharing
Conference keying
Analysis of key establishment protocols
Attack strategies and classic protocol flaws
Analysis objectives and methods
Notes and further references
Key Management Techniques
Background and basic concepts
Classifying keys by algorithm type and intended use
Key management objectives, threats, and policy
Simple key establishment models
Roles of third parties
Tradeoffs among key establishment protocols
Techniques for distributing confidential keys
Key layering and cryptoperiods
Key translation centers and symmetric-key certificates
Techniques for distributing public keys
Authentication trees
Public-key certificates
Identity-based systems
Implicitly certified public keys
Comparison of techniques for distributing public keys
Techniques for controlling key usage
Key separation and constraints on key usage
Techniques for controlling use of symmetric keys
Key management involving multiple domains
Trust between two domains
Trust models involving multiple certification authorities
Certificate distribution and revocation
Key life cycle issues
Lifetime protection requirements
Key management life cycle
Advanced trusted third party services
Trusted timestamping service
Non-repudiation and notarization of digital signatures
Key escrow
Notes and further references
Efficient Implementation
Multiple-precision integer arithmetic
Radix representation
Addition and subtraction
Multiple-precision modular arithmetic
Classical modular multiplication
Montgomery reduction
Barrett reduction
Reduction methods for moduli of special form
Greatest common divisor algorithms
Binary gcd algorithm
Lehmer's gcd algorithm
Binary extended gcd algorithm
Chinese remainder theorem for integers
Residue number systems
Garner's algorithm
Basic techniques for exponentiation
Fixed-exponent exponentiation algorithms
Fixed-base exponentiation algorithms
Exponent recoding
Signed-digit representation
String-replacement representation
Notes and further references
Patents and Standards
Patents on cryptographic techniques
Five fundamental patents
Ten prominent patents
Ten selected patents
Ordering and acquiring patents
Cryptographic standards
International standards - cryptographic techniques
Banking security standards (ANSI, ISO)
International security architectures and frameworks
U.S. government standards (FIPS)
Industry standards and RFCs
De facto standards
Ordering and acquiring standards
Notes and further references
A. Bibliography of Papers from Selected Cryptographic Forums
Asiacrypt/Auscrypt Proceedings
Crypto Proceedings
Eurocrypt Proceedings
Fast Software Encryption Proceedings
Journal of Cryptology papers