CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics

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High Quality Science requires High Quality Data! Today, more than ever, the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is critical in ensuring that researchers, educators, and students have the highest quality data for chemical compounds and physical particles. Les mer
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High Quality Science requires High Quality Data! Today, more than ever, the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is critical in ensuring that researchers, educators, and students have the highest quality data for chemical compounds and physical particles. Available both in print and online, the Handbook covers 390 chemistry, physics, and related subjects organized in easy-to-find, well-organized tables. Every year, new reported data and new scientific areas are added, making the Handbook the largest comprehensive physical science data source available anywhere. Handbook features include:




All data reviewed and evaluated by subject matter experts
Standardized chemical names, structures, property names, and property units
Important information on subjects such as chemical and laboratory safety, and nomenclature
Chemical and physical data critical for fields such as environmental science, bio-medical chemistry, organic and inorganic chemistry, materials innovation, geo- and astrophysics, and solid-state science
Digital tools in our Online Edition to analyze, graph, process, and exploit our data content


Seven new topics have been added in the 102nd Edition, including two on chemical and laboratory safety (marked by *), expanding our commitment to these topics.








Properties of Controlled Substances







Summary Tables of Particle Properties







*Compressed Air Safety







*Safety in the Use of Cryogens







Pressure Drop in Open Tubular Gas Chromatographic Columns







Phase Ratios for Capillary Columns







Minimum Recomended Injector Split Ratios for Capillary Columns

Fakta

Innholdsfortegnelse

SECTION 1: BASIC CONSTANTS, UNITS, AND CONVERSION FACTORS


CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2019


Standard Atomic Weights (2013)


Atomic Masses and Abundances


Electron Configuration and Ionization Energy of Neutral Atoms in the Ground State


International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90)


International System of Units (SI)


Units for Magnetic Properties


Conversion Factors for Energy Units


Conversion Factors for Pressure Units


Descriptive Terms for Solubility


Values of the Gas Constant in Different Unit Systems


Periodic Table of the Elements


Standard Atomic Weights in Atomic Order Number


Fundamental Physical Constants - Frequently Used Constants


Definition of Ambient


Conversion Factors for Thermal Conductivity Units


SECTION 2: SYMBOLS, TERMINOLOGY, AND NOMENCLATURE


Symbols and Terminology for Physical and Chemical Quantities


Expression of Uncertainty of Measurements


Nomenclature for Chemical Compounds


Nomenclature for Inorganic Chemistry


Representation of Chemical Structures with the IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI)


Scientific Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Symbols


Thermodynamic Functions and Relations


Nobel Laureates in Chemistry and Physics


SECTION 3: PHYSICAL CONSTANTS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS


Physical Constants of Organic Compounds


Diamagnetic Susceptibility of Selected Organic Compounds


SECTION 4: PROPERTIES OF THE ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS


The Elements


Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds


Physical Properties of the Rare Earth Metals


Melting, Boiling, Triple, and Critical Points of the Elements


Heat Capacity of the Elements at 25 DegreesC


Vapor Pressure of the Metallic Elements - Equations


Vapor Pressure of the Metallic Elements - Data


Density of Molten Elements and Representative Salts


Magnetic Susceptibility of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds


Index of Refraction of Inorganic Liquids and Liquid Elements


Physical and Optical Properties of Minerals


Crystallographic Data on Minerals


SECTION 5: THERMOCHEMISTRY, KINETICS, ELECTROCHEMISTRY, AND SOLUTION CHEMISTRY


CODATA Key Values for Thermodynamics


Standard Thermodynamic Properties of Chemical Substances


Thermodynamic Properties as a Function of Temperature


Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Ions


Heat of Combustion


Energy Content of Fuels


Chemical Reaction Rate Constants for Atmospheric Studies


Ionization Constant of Water at Various Temperatures and Pressures


Ionization Constant of Normal and Heavy Water at Saturated Vapor Pressure


Electrical Conductivity of Water


Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions


Standard KCl Solutions for Calibrating Electrical Conductivity Cells


Molar Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous HF, HCl, HBr, and HI


Molar Electrical Conductivity of Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution


Ionic Conductivity and Diffusion at Infinite Dilution


Electrochemical Series


Dissociation Constants of Inorganic Acids and Bases


Dissociation Constants of Organic Acids and Bases


Activity Coefficients of Acids, Bases, and Salts


Mean Activity Coefficients of Electrolytes as a Function of Concentration


Enthalpy of Dilution of Acids


Enthalpy of Solution of Electrolytes


pH Scale for Aqueous Solutions


Buffer Solutions Giving Round Values of pH at 25 DegreesC


Concentrative Properties of Aqueous Solutions


Solubility of Selected Gases in Water


Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water at Various Temperatures and Pressures


Aqueous Solubility and Henry's Law Constants of Organic Compounds


Aqueous Solubility of Inorganic Compounds at Various Temperatures


Octanol-Water Partition Coefficients


Solubility Product Constants of Inorganic Salts


Solubility of Common Salts at Various Temperatures


Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Seawater


Solubility of Organic Compounds in Pressurized Hot Water


Solubility Chart for Inorganic Salts


SECTION 6: FLUID PROPERTIES


Thermophysical Properties of Water and Steam


Vapor Pressure and Other Saturation Properties of Water


Standard Density of Water


Fixed-Point Properties of H2O and D2O


Properties of Saturated Liquid D2O


Properties of Ice and Supercooled Water


Vapor Pressure of Ice


Melting Point of Ice as a Function of Pressure


Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Water at Various Frequencies


Thermophysical Properties of Air


Thermophysical Properties of Fluids


Thermophysical Properties of Selected Fluids at Saturation


Virial Coefficients of Selected Gases


Mean Free Path and Related Properties of Gases


Influence of Pressure on Freezing Points


Critical Constants of Organic Compounds


Critical Constants of Inorganic Compounds


Sublimation Pressure of Solids


Vapor Pressure


Vapor Pressure of Fluids at Temperatures below 300 K


Vapor Pressure of Saturated Salt Solutions


Enthalpy of Vaporization


Enthalpy of Fusion


Compressibility and Expansion Coefficients of Liquids


Temperature and Pressure Dependence of Liquid Density


Properties of Cryogenic Fluids


Properties of Liquid Helium


Properties of Refrigerants


Properties of Gas Clathrate Hydrates


Ionic Liquids


Surface Tension of Common Liquids


Surface Tension of Aqueous Mixtures


Surface Active Chemicals (Surfactants)


Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Liquids


Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Gases


Azeotropic Data for Binary Mixtures


Viscosity of Gases


Viscosity of Liquids


Thermal Conductivity of Gases and Refrigerants


Thermal Conductivity of Liquids


Diffusion in Gases


Diffusion of Gases in Water


Diffusion Coefficients in Liquids at Infinite Dilution


SECTION 7: BIOCHEMISTRY


Properties of Amino Acids


Structures of Common Amino Acids


Properties of Purine and Pyrimidine Bases


The Genetic Code


Properties of Fatty Acids and Their Methyl Esters


Composition and Properties of Common Oils and Fats


Carbohydrate Names and Symbols


Standard Transformed Gibbs Energies of Formation for Biochemical Reactants


Apparent Equilibrium Constants for Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions


Apparent Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Protein-Ligand Binding Reactions


Thermodynamic Quantities for the Ionization Reactions of Buffers in Water


Biological Buffers


Typical pH Values of Biological Materials and Foods


Structure and Functions of Some Common Drugs


Properties of Controlled Substances


Chemical Constituents of Human Blood


Chemical Composition of the Human Body


SECTION 8: ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY


Abbreviations and Symbols Used in Analytical Chemistry


Basic Instrumental Techniques of Analytical Chemistry


Analytical Standardization and Calibration


Figures of Merit


Mass- and Volume-Based Concentration Units


Detection of Outliers in Measurements


Properties of Carrier Gases for Gas Chromatography


Common Symbols Used in Gas and Liquid Chromatographic Schematic Diagrams


Stationary Phases for Porous Layer Open Tubular Columns


Coolants for Cryotrapping


Properties of Common Cross-Linked Silicone Stationary Phases


Detectors for Gas Chromatography


Varieties of Hyphenated Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry


Gas Chromatographic Retention Indices


Pressure Drop in Open Tubular Gas Chromatographic Columns


Phase Ratios for Capillary Columns


Minimum Recommended Injector Split Ratios for Capillary Columns


Eluotropic Values of Solvents on Octadecylsilane and Octylsilane


Instability of HPLC Solvents


Detectors for Liquid Chromatography


Solvents for Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry


Correlation Table for Ultraviolet Active Functionalities


Middle-Range Infrared Absorption Correlation Charts


Common Spurious Infrared Absorption Bands


Nuclear Spins, Moments, and Other Data Related to NMR Spectroscopy


Properties of Important NMR Nuclei


Proton NMR Absorption of Major Chemical Families


Proton NMR Correlation Chart for Major Organic Functional Groups


Proton NMR Shifts of Common Organic Liquids


Proton Chemical Shifts of Contaminants in Deuterated Solvents


13C-NMR Absorptions of Major Functional Groups


13C-NMR Chemical Shifts of Common Organic Solvents


15N-NMR Chemical Shifts of Major Chemical Families


Natural Abundance of Important Isotopes


Common Mass Spectral Fragmentation Patterns of Organic Compound Families


Common Mass Spectral Fragments Lost


Major Reference Masses in the Spectrum of Heptacosafluorotributylamine (Perfluorotributylamine)


Mass Spectral Peaks of Common Organic Liquids


Common Spurious Signals Observed in Mass Spectrometers


Chlorine-Bromine Combination Isotope Intensities in Mass-Spectral Patterns


Reduction of Weighings in Air to Vacuo


Standards for Laboratory Weights


Indicators for Acids and Bases


Preparation of Special Analytical Reagents


Organic Analytical Reagents for the Determination of Inorganic Ions


SECTION 9: MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND SPECTROSCOPY


Bond Lengths in Crystalline Organic Compounds


Bond Lengths in Organometallic Compounds


Structure of Free Molecules in the Gas Phase


Characteristic Bond Lengths in Free Molecules


Atomic Radii of the Elements


Dipole Moments


Hindered Internal Rotation


Bond Dissociation Energies


Electronegativity


Force Constants for Bond Stretching


Fundamental Vibrational Frequencies of Small Molecules


Spectroscopic Constants of Diatomic Molecules


SECTION 10: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR, AND OPTICAL PHYSICS


Summary Tables of Particle Properties


Persistent Lines of Neutral Atomic Elements


Atomic Transition Probabilities


Electron Affinities


Proton Affinities


Polarizabilities of Atoms and Molecules


Ionization Energies of Atoms and Atomic Ions


Ionization Energies of Gas-Phase Molecules


Attenuation Coefficients for High-Energy Electromagnetic Radiation


Classification of Electromagnetic Radiation


Sensitivity of the Human Eye to Light of Different Wavelengths


Blackbody Radiation


Characteristics of Infrared Detectors


Index of Refraction of Inorganic Crystals


Refractive Index and Transmittance of Representative Glasses


Index of Refraction of Water


Index of Refraction of Liquids for Calibration Purposes


Index of Refraction of Air


Index of Refraction of Gases


SECTION 11: NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS


Table of the Isotopes


Neutron Scattering and Absorption Properties


Cosmic Radiation


SECTION 12: PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS


Techniques for Materials Characterization


Symmetry of Crystals


Ionic Radii in Crystals


Polarizability of Atoms and Ions in Solids


Crystal Structures and Lattice Parameters of Allotropes of the Elements


Phase Transitions in the Solid Elements at Atmospheric Pressure


The Madelung Constant and Crystal Lattice Energy


Elastic Constants of Single Crystals


Electrical Resistivity of Pure Metals


Electrical Resistivity of Selected Alloys


Electrical Resistivity of Graphite Materials


Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Inorganic Solids


Curie Temperature of Selected Ferroelectric Crystals


Properties of Antiferroelectric Crystals


Dielectric Constants of Glasses


Properties of Superconductors


High-Temperature Superconductors


Organic Superconductors


Properties of Semiconductors


Selected Properties of Semiconductor Solid Solutions


Properties of Organic Semiconductors


Diffusion Data for Semiconductors


Properties of Magnetic Materials


Organic Magnets


Electron Inelastic Mean Free Paths


Electron Stopping Powers


Electron Work Function of the Elements


Secondary Electron Emission


Optical Properties of Selected Elements


Optical Properties of Selected Inorganic and Organic Solids


Properties of Selected Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures


Heat Capacity of Selected Solids


Thermal and Physical Properties of Pure Metals


Thermal Conductivity of Metals and Semiconductors as a Function of Temperature


Thermal Conductivity of Alloys as a Function of Temperature


Thermal Conductivity of Crystalline Dielectrics


Thermal Conductivity of Ceramics and Other Insulating Materials


Thermal Conductivity of Glasses


Thermoelectric Properties of Metals and Semiconductors


Fermi Energy and Related Properties of Metals


SECTION 13: POLYMER PROPERTIES


Abbreviations Used in Polymer Science and Technology


Physical Properties of Selected Polymers


Nomenclature for Organic Polymers


Solvents for Common Polymers


Glass Transition Temperature for Selected Polymers


Dielectric Constant of Selected Polymers


Pressure-Volume-Temperature Relationships for Polymer Melts


Vapor Pressures (Solvent Activities) for Binary Polymer Solutions


Solubility Parameters of Selected Polymers


SECTION 14: GEOPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, AND ACOUSTICS


Astronomical Constants


Properties of the Solar System


Satellites of the Planets


Interstellar Molecules


Mass, Dimensions, and Other Parameters of the Earth


Geological Time Scale


Acceleration Due to Gravity


Density, Pressure, and Gravity as a Function of Depth within the Earth


Ocean Pressure as a Function of Depth and Latitude


Properties of Seawater


Abundance of Elements in the Earth's Crust and in the Sea


Solar Irradiance at the Earth


U.S. Standard Atmosphere (1976)


Geographical and Seasonal Variations in Solar Radiation


Major World Earthquakes


Infrared Absorption by the Earth's Atmosphere


Atmospheric Concentration of Carbon Dioxide, 1958-2019


Global Temperature Trend, 1880-2019


Global Warming Potential of Greenhouse Gases


Speed of Sound in Various Media


Attenuation and Speed of Sound in Air as a Function of Humidity and Frequency


Speed of Sound in Dry Air


SECTION 15: PRACTICAL LABORATORY DATA


Standard ITS-90 Thermocouple Tables


Reference Points on the ITS-90 Temperature Scale


Relative Sensitivity of Bayard-Alpert Ionization Gauges to Various Gases


Laboratory Solvents and Other Liquid Reagents


Miscibility of Organic Solvents


Density of Solvents as a Function of Temperature


Dependence of Boiling Point on Pressure


Ebullioscopic Constants for Calculation of Boiling Point Elevation


Cryoscopic Constants for Calculation of Freezing Point Depression


Freezing Point Lowering by Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution


Correction of Barometer Readings to 0 DegreesC Temperature


Determination of Relative Humidity from Dew Point


Determination of Relative Humidity from Wet and Dry Bulb Temperatures


Constant Humidity Solutions


Standard Salt Solutions for Humidity Calibration


Low-Temperature Baths for Maintaining Constant Temperature


Metals and Alloys with Low Melting Temperature


Characteristics of Particles and Particle Dispersoids


Density of Various Solids


Density of Sulfuric Acid


Density of Ethanol-Water Mixtures


Dielectric Strength of Insulating Materials


Coefficient of Friction


SECTION 16: HEALTH AND SAFETY INFORMATION


Chemical Safety


Abbreviations Used in the Assessment and Presentation of Laboratory Hazards


Incompatible Chemicals


Explosion (Shock) Hazards


Water-Reactive Chemicals


Testing Requirements for Peroxidizable Compounds


Tests for the Presence of Peroxides


Pyrophoric Compounds - Compounds That Are Reactive with Air


Flammability Hazards of Common Solvents


Flammability of Chemical Substances


Materials Compatible with and Resistant to 72 Percent Perchloric Acid


Selection of Laboratory Gloves


Selection of Protective Laboratory Garments


Selection of Respirator Cartridges and Filters


Protective Clothing Levels


Selection of Hearing Protection Devices


Chemical Fume Hoods and Biological Safety Cabinets


Gas Cylinder Safety and Stamped Markings


Compressed Air Safety


Safety in the Use of Cryogens


Nanomaterial Safety Guidelines


Threshold Limits for Airborne Contaminants


Chemical Carcinogens


Laser Hazards in the Laboratory


General Characteristics of Ionizing Radiation for Practical Application of Radiation Protection


Radiation Safety Units


Relative Dose Ranges from Ionizing Radiation


Annual Limits on Intakes of Radionuclides


APPENDIX B: SOURCES OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA


INDEX

Om forfatteren

Dr. John Rumble has long been a leader in developing and providing access to databases in numerous S&T disciplines. From 1980 through 2004, he worked in the NIST Standard Reference Data Program and later was responsible for NIST measurement services programs. From 2004 to 2011, He was Executive Vice President of Information International Associates in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Today he is President of R&R Data Services in Gaithersburg MD.


Rumble has served on numerous national and international STI policy committees and review panels and was a member of the Board on International Scientific Organizations of the National Academy of Sciences.


Dr. Rumble was among the first to build online, PC, and Internet/web-based factual databases for scientific and technical (S&T) data. While at NIST, he sponsored data projects with scientists in China, Japan, England, France, Germany, and Russia. During that time, he also worked with many industry organizations and professional societies to develop industry-related data programs in materials science and chemistry, as well as standards for S&T data exchange.


Dr. Rumble has considerable experience in chemistry, physics, materials science, nanomaterials, and informatics and data science experience and has published widely in all these areas. Rumble received a Ph.D. in Chemical Physics from Indiana University.


In 1998-2002, Rumble served as President of CODATA, the ICSU Committee on Data for Science and Technology. Dr. Rumble is Fellow of IUPAC, AAAS, APS, ASTM International, ASM International, and IAFoST, as well as a Foreign Member of the Russian Academy of Metrology. He was awarded the CODATA 2006 Prize for outstanding achievements in S&T data. He has served two terms as Editor-in-Chief of the CODATA Data Science Journal.


During the last five years, Dr. Rumble has led a multi-disciplinary effort to develop a uniform system for describing nanomaterials. This work has been done under the auspices of CODATA International and the International Council for Science. Rumble has put together a unique group of international union representatives from the diverse scientific and technical fields interested in nanotechnology, including chemistry, physics, materials science, food science and technology, nutrition science, toxicology, and more. In addition, he has reached out to more general audiences in these fields through international workshops, symposia at union conferences, and liaisons with U.S. and European Nanosafety projects. This work is available at www.codata.org/nanomaterials