Magnesium and Its Alloys as Implant Materials

Corrosion, Mechanical and Biological Performances

; Filippo Berto ; Jan Torgersen

Despite their tremendous potential, Mg and its alloys are not yet used in biomedical applications. This book aims to provide scientific insights into the challenges of the materials, and give an overview of the research regarding their mechanical properties, corrosion behaviour and biological performances. Les mer
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Om boka

Despite their tremendous potential, Mg and its alloys are not yet used in biomedical applications. This book aims to provide scientific insights into the challenges of the materials, and give an overview of the research regarding their mechanical properties, corrosion behaviour and biological performances. The authors intend to put the reader into the position to accurate discern the proper Mg-based material for his/her applications and to choose the proper improvement strategy to his/her cause. To this aim, the manuscript is structured as follow: in Section 2, the main challenges hampering the use of magnesium in biomedical applications and the common improvement strategies are listed. In Section 3, the most investigated Mg alloys are reported in separate sub-sections, detailing their mechanical properties, corrosion behaviour and biotoxicity. High-pure and ultra-high-pure Mg, Al-based Mg alloys, Zn-based Mg alloys, Ca-based alloys and RE-based Mg alloys have been considered. In Section 4, the alloys' performances with respect to the challenges is summarized providing the reader with useful information and suggestions on the potentially most suited choice. Finally, in Section 5, an outlook portraying the authors' opinion of the future development of the field will be provided. This book will allow biomedical engineers, surface scientists, material scientists, implant manufacturers and companies working on implant approval an overview of the state-of-the-art technologies adopted so far to overcome the drawbacks of Mg for biomedical applications. Particular emphasis is put on explaining the link between mechanical, corrosion and biocompatible properties of Mg and its alloys as well as their pros and cons. In doing so, the authors intend to put the reader into the position to accurate discern the proper Mg-based material for his/her applications and to choose the proper improvement strategy to his/her cause.

Fakta

Innholdsfortegnelse

Contents


List of Abbreviations ........................................................................................ ix


Authors........................................................................................................... xiii


Chapter 1 Introduction................................................................................... 1


1.1 Introduction ...........................................................................1


References.......................................................................................4


Chapter 2 Challenges and Common Strategies ............................................... 9


2.1 Introduction ...........................................................................9


2.2 Corrosion Mitigation Strategies..............................................9


2.2.1 Impurities Removal.................................................. 10


2.2.2 Alloying ................................................................... 11


2.2.3 Grain Size Modification........................................... 11


2.3 Mechanical Properties Tuning .............................................. 14


2.3.1 Grain Refinement .................................................... 15


2.3.2 Solid Solution Strengthening ................................... 16


2.3.3 Precipitation Hardening........................................... 16


2.4 Interplay among Mechanical Properties, Corrosion


Resistance and Biocompatibility........................................... 17


References..................................................................................... 17


Chapter 3 Synopsis of Properties of Biocompatible Mg and Its Alloys......... 21


3.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 21


3.2 High-Pure Magnesium.......................................................... 21


3.2.1 High-Pure Magnesium: Mechanical Properties........ 21


3.2.2 High-Pure Magnesium: Corrosion Resistance.......... 23


3.2.3 High-Pure Magnesium: Biocompatibility................. 24


3.3 Aluminum-Based Alloys ....................................................... 26


3.3.1 AZ Alloys ................................................................ 28


3.3.1.1 AZ Alloys: Mechanical Properties ............. 28


3.3.1.2 AZ Alloys: Corrosion Resistance ............... 30


3.3.1.3 AZ Alloys: Biocompatibility ...................... 33


3.3.2 AM Alloys ............................................................... 33


3.3.2.1 AM Alloys: Mechanical Properties ............ 35


3.3.2.2 AM Alloys: Corrosion Resistance .............. 36


3.3.2.3 AM Alloys: Biocompatibility ..................... 39


3.3.3 Mg-Al-RE Alloys ................................................... 39


3.3.3.1 Mg-Al-RE Alloys: Mechanical


Properties ................................................... 40


3.3.3.2 Mg-Al-RE Alloys: Corrosion


Resistance .................................................. 42


3.3.3.3 Mg-Al-RE Alloys: Biocompatibility ......... 44


3.4 Mg-Zn Alloys....................................................................... 45


3.4.1 Mg-Zn Binary Alloys .............................................. 46


3.4.1.1 Mg-Zn Binary Alloys: Mechanical


Properties ................................................... 47


3.4.1.2 Mg-Zn Binary Alloys: Corrosion


Resistance .................................................. 47


3.4.1.3 Mg-Zn Binary Alloys: Biocompatibility .... 49


3.4.2 Mg-Zn-Zr Alloys .................................................... 53


3.4.2.1 Mg-Zn-Zr Alloys: Mechanical


Properties ................................................... 53


3.4.2.2 Mg-Zn-Zr Alloys: Corrosion


Resistance .................................................. 54


3.4.2.3 Mg-Zn-Zr Alloys: Biocompatibility .......... 59


3.4.3 Mg-Zn-Ca Alloys ................................................... 62


3.4.3.1 Mg-Zn-Ca Alloys: Mechanical


Properties ................................................... 63


3.4.3.2 Mg-Zn-Ca Alloys: Corrosion


Resistance .................................................. 66


3.4.3.3 Mg-Zn-Ca Alloys: Biocompatibility ......... 67


3.4.4 Mg-Zn-Ca BMGs................................................... 68


3.4.4.1 Mg-Zn-Ca BMGs: Mechanical


Properties ................................................... 70


3.4.4.2 Mg-Zn-Ca BMGs: Corrosion Resistance.. 71


3.4.4.3 Mg-Zn-Ca BMGs: Biocompatibility......... 72


3.4.5 Mg-Zn-Mn Alloys .................................................. 73


3.4.5.1 Mg-Zn-Mn Alloys: Mechanical


Properties ................................................... 75


3.4.5.2 Mg-Zn-Mn Alloys: Corrosion


Resistance .................................................. 78


3.4.5.3 Mg-Zn-Mn Alloys: Biocompatibility ........ 82


3.4.6 Mg-Zn-RE Alloys................................................... 83


3.4.6.1 Mg-Zn-RE Alloys: Mechanical


Properties ................................................... 86


3.4.6.2 Mg-Zn-RE Alloys: Corrosion


Resistance .................................................. 88


3.4.6.3 Mg-Zn-RE Alloys: Biocompatibility......... 91


3.5 Mg-Ca Alloys....................................................................... 91


3.5.1 Mg-Ca Alloys: Mechanical Properties..................... 92


3.5.2 Mg-Ca Alloys: Corrosion Resistance ...................... 98


3.5.3 Mg-Ca Alloys: Biocompatibility............................ 101


3.6 Mg-RE Alloys.................................................................... 102


3.6.1 Mg-RE Alloys: Mechanical Properties .................. 106


3.6.2 Mg-RE Alloys: Corrosion Resistance.................... 108


3.6.3 Mg-RE Alloys: Biocompatibility........................... 112


References................................................................................... 116


Chapter 4 Tackling the Challenges ............................................................. 145


4.1 Introduction ....................................................................... 145


4.2 Radar Chart: An Easy Tool to Compare Corrosion,


Mechanical and Biological Performances ........................... 145


Reference .................................................................................... 147


Chapter 5 Outlook...................................................................................... 149


Reference .................................................................................... 149


Appendix A: Corrosion ................................................................................... 151


Appendix B: In Vitro Biocompatibility Assessment ......................................... 161


Index.............................................................................................................. 165

Om forfatteren

Mirco Peron earned his degree in mechanical engineering (summa cum laude)


in 2015 from the University of Padova, where his thesis evaluated the fatigue


damage and stiffness evolution in composite laminates. He is currently a PhD


student at Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.


His PhD topic deals with the optimization of mechanical and corrosion


properties of magnesium and its alloys for biomedical applications, with particular


reference to the corrosion-assisted cracking phenomena.


Filippo Berto is Chair of Structural Integrity at the Norwegian University of


Science and Technology in Norway. He is in charge of the Mechanical and


Material Characterization Lab in the Department of Mechanical and Industrial


Engineering. He is author of more than 500 technical papers, mainly


oriented to materials science engineering, the brittle failure of different materials,


notch effect, the application of the finite element method to the structural


analysis, the mechanical behavior of metallic materials, the fatigue performance


of notched components as well as the reliability of welded, bolted and


bonded joints. Since 2003, he has been working on different aspects of the


structural integrity discipline, by mainly focusing attention on problems


related to the static and fatigue assessment of engineering materials with particular


attention to biomedical and medical applications and materials.


Jan Torgersen is Professor of mechanical engineering at NTNU, Trondheim.


He received his PhD from Vienna University of Technology, where he worked


on high-resolution laser microfabrication of hydrogels for tissue engineering.


He was pioneering in the work of processing hydrogel formulations at micron


scale resolution in vivo, in the presence of living cells and whole organisms.


He received a postdoctoral fellowship to work on a nanoscale vapor deposition


technique called atomic layer deposition, allowing conformal coating of


thermally fragile and nanostructured substrates with atomically thin layers of


a wide range of materials. He contributed to the development of a selflimiting


deposition process for high-k materials for Dynamic Random Access


Memory (DRAM) applications. His current research interests are micro- and


nanofabrication as well as surface functionalization, with particular focus on


biomedical applications.