The Chemical Century

Molecular Manipulation and Its Impact on the 20th Century

This fascinating new volume provides a comprehensive yet concise overview of the chemical aspects of some of the major innovations and changes that occurred during the 20th century, relating chemical structures and properties to real-life applications. Les mer
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Om boka

This fascinating new volume provides a comprehensive yet concise overview of the chemical aspects of some of the major innovations and changes that occurred during the 20th century, relating chemical structures and properties to real-life applications. Developed for a course taught by the author for several years at UVA, the author covers the important and consequential developments in chemistry and explains their everyday, real-life applications. These include such topics as consumer products, fossil fuel use, polymers, agriculture, food production, nutrition, explosives, and drugs. The section Molecular Biology and Its Applications includes examples of the application of biotechnology and genetic engineering.







Fakta

Innholdsfortegnelse

POWER FROM MOLECULES



Explosives and Propellants: Power to Breach Mountains, Wage War, and Visit the Moon

Structures of Explosives and Propellants

Production of Explosives and Propellants

Military Applications of Explosives and Propellants

Rocket Engines for Space Exploration

Other Uses of Explosives and Propellants

Explosives and Terrorism



Hydrocarbons as Fuels and Petrochemicals: Shaping the Past; Dominating the Present; Complicating the Future

Petroleum Refining and Processing

Alternative Sources of Liquid Fuels

Petrochemicals

Environmental Consequences of Hydrocarbon Fuel Usage

Economical, Political, and Ethical Aspects of Fossil Fuel Usage



MAKING THINGS WE USE



The Chemical Industry: An Overview

Prior to WWI

From WWI to WWII

WWII to 1975

975 -2000

The International Chemical Industry at the End of the Century

Origins of the Pharmaceutical Industry



Halogenated Hydrocarbons: Persistence, Toxicity, and Problems

Volatile Chlorinated Solvents and Intermediates

DDT and Other Persistent Halogenated Compounds

Chlorofluorocarbons and Related Compounds



Polymers: Making New Materials

The Nature of Polymers

Chemically Modified Natural Polymers

Synthetic Polymers

Fabrication of Polymers

Flammability of Fibers, Films and Plastics

Recycling of Polymers



Household and Personal Care Products: Cleaning Up and Looking Good

Surfactant Types

Household Cleaning Products

Personal Care Products

Skin Care

Cosmetics

Advertising of Household and Personal Care Products

Environmental Effects and Regulation



Silicones: From Contact Lenses to Pavement Sealants

Preparation and Properties of Silicones

Applications of Silicones

Biomedical Applications of Silicones

Environmental Issues



CHEMISTRY AND FOOD



Chemistry and Agriculture: Helping Feed the World

Fertilizers

Herbicides

Insecticides

Environmental and Ecological Effects of Food Production



Chemistry, Food and the Modern Diet: What's in Food Besides Food?

Some Common Food Ingredients

Sugars and Low-Caloric Sweeteners

Fats and Oils

Coffee Decaffeination

Chemical Basis of Fruit Ripening

Economics and Politics of Food Processing

Examples of Processed Foods

Metabolic Syndrome, Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes



Vitamins and Nutrition

Vitamin Deficiency Diseases and the Discovery of the Vitamins

The Use and Value of Vitamin Supplements

Dietary Supplements

Nutritional Consequences of Food Production and Processing



MOLECULES FOR THE TREATMENT OF ILLNESS



Drug Discovery, Development, and Distribution

The Origins of Chemotherapy

Beginnings of the Modern Pharmaceutical Industry

Drug Discovery and Development

Regulation, Research, Politics and Public Relations

The Pharmaceutical Industry



Antibiotics: The Battle with the Microbes

?-Lactams

Aminoglycosides and Other Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs

Other Classes of Antibiotics

Issues for the Future of Antibiotics



Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Pyretic, and Anesthetic Drugs: Dealing with Pain, Inflammation, and Fever

Aspirin

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)

Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (Coxibs)

Acetanilides, Including Phenacetin and Acetaminophen

Other Analgesic and Anti-Pyretic Drugs

Morphine and Related Opiates

Cocaine and Related Structures

General Anesthetics



Antihypertensive Drugs: Controlling Blood Pressure

The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System

Drugs for Treatment of Hypertension



Steroids: Arthritis, Fertility, Heart Attacks, and Home Run Records

Structure of Steroids

Corticosteroids and Arthritis

Steroids in Fertility Control

Cardiovascular Effects of Steroids

Steroid Analogs in Cancer Treatment

Steroid Abuse in Sports

Endocrine Disruptors; Inadvertent Fertility Modification?



Diabetes and Anti-Diabetic Therapy: Control of Glucose

The Discovery and Clinical Introduction of Insulin

Production and Administration of Insulin

Diagnosis and Characteristics of Diabetes

Drugs Used In Treatment of Type-2 Diabetes



Drugs For Treatment of Neurological and Psychological Conditions

Early History of Psychoactive Drugs

Hypnotics

Anti-Epilepsy Drugs

Anti-Psychotic Drugs (Neuroleptics)

Anti-Anxiety Drugs

Anti-Depressants

Use and Abuse of Amphetamine and Its Derivatives

Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia

Social Consequences and Controversies in Treatment of Neurological and Psychological Conditions



Anti-Malarial and Other Anti-Parasitic Drugs

Malaria: Etiology, Pathology, Prevention and Treatment

Trypanosomiasis

Leishamaniasis

Schistosomiasis

Lymphatic Filariasis

Other Helminthic Infections

Onchocerciasis



Response to the AIDS Pandemic

Drugs for Treatment of AIDS

Economic Aspects of AIDS Treatment



MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS.



DNA Structure, Sequencing, Synthesis, and Modification: Making Biology Molecular

Structure of DNA and the Genetic Code

DNA Sequencing

Synthesis of DNA

Manipulation, Modification and Analysis of DNA

Sequencing the Human Genome



Applications of Biotechnology: Biology Doing Chemistry

Examples of Small Molecules Produced by Biotechnology

Biotechnology in Agriculture

Genetically Engineered Products for Medicine



Index

Om forfatteren

Richard C. Sundberg, PhD, is a Professor of Chemistry at the University of Virginia and has been teaching for 50 years. He was a Fulbright Scholar (France) in 1978-79, and he was honored as a Distinguished Alumni by the University of Minnesota in 2001. He has published about 100 research papers and five monographs in the area of heterocyclic organic compounds and has directed 25 PhD theses. His past books include Advanced Organic Chemistry (all editions) (co-authored with Francis A. Carey), Springer; Indoles, Best Synthetic Methods, Academic Press, 1996; and The Chemistry of Indoles, Academic Press, 1970.