IP Multicast, Volume I

Cisco IP Multicast Networking

; Raymond Blair ; Arvind Durai

IP Multicast Volume I: Cisco IP Multicast Networking

Design, deploy, and operate modern Cisco IP multicast networks

IP Multicast, Volume I thoroughly covers basic IP multicast principles and routing techniques for building and operating enterprise and service provider networks to support applications ranging from videoconferencing to data replication. Les mer
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IP Multicast Volume I: Cisco IP Multicast Networking

Design, deploy, and operate modern Cisco IP multicast networks

IP Multicast, Volume I thoroughly covers basic IP multicast principles and routing techniques for building and operating enterprise and service provider networks to support applications ranging from videoconferencing to data replication.

After briefly reviewing data communication in IP networks, the authors thoroughly explain network access, Layer 2 and Layer 3 multicast, and protocol independent multicast (PIM). Building on these essentials, they introduce multicast scoping, explain IPv6 multicast, and offer practical guidance for IP multicast design, operation, and troubleshooting. Key concepts and techniques are illuminated through real-world network examples and detailed diagrams.

Reflecting extensive experience working with Cisco customers, the authors offer pragmatic discussions of common features, design approaches, deployment models, and field practices. You’ll find everything from specific commands to start-to-finish methodologies: all you need to deliver and optimize any IP multicast solution.

IP Multicast, Volume I is a valuable resource for network engineers, architects, operations technicians, consultants, security professionals, and collaboration specialists. Network managers and administrators will find the implementation case study and feature explanations especially useful.

·         Review IP multicasting applications and what makes multicast unique

·         Understand IP multicast at the access layer, from layered encapsulation to switching multicast frames

·         Work with Layer 2 switching domains, IPv4 group addresses, and MAC address maps

·         Utilize Layer 3 multicast hosts and understand each PIM mode

·         Implement basic forwarding trees and rendezvous points

·         Compare multicast forwarding modes: ASM, SSM, and PIM Bidir

·         Plan and properly scope basic multicast networks

·         Choose your best approach to forwarding replication

·         Apply best practices for security and resiliency

·         Understand unique IPv6 deployment issues

·         Efficiently administer and troubleshoot your IP multicast network


This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press®, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.


Category: Networking

Covers: IP Multicast




Introduction xv

Chapter 1 Introduction to IP Multicast 1

What Problem Does Multicast Solve? 3

Multicast Applications and Services 5

    One-to-Many Multicast Applications 5

    Many-to-Many Multicast Applications 6

    Many-to-One Multicast Applications 7

Multicast Packet 8

    What Is a Source? 9

    What Is a Receiver? 10

L3 Multicast Is Built on the TCP/IP Protocol Stack 10

    It’s a Group Thing 11

    IPv4 Layer 3 Multicast Addressing Defines Groups 13

    IPv4 Multicast Group Address Assignments 14

Important Multicast Groups and Group Considerations 16

    IPv4 Local Network Control 16

    IPv4 Inter-Network Control 18

The History of Multicast 19

    The MBone 20

    Native Internet Multicast 20

    IPv6 Multicast 20

    Multicast Development and Standardization 21

Summary 21

Chapter 2 Network Access and Layer 2 Multicast 23

Layered Encapsulation 23

MAC Address Mapping 26

Switching Multicast Frames 28

Group Subscription 29

IGMP on the Gateway Router 30

IGMP Versions 31

    IGMPv1 31

    IGMPv2 32

    IGMPv3 35

Configuring IGMP on a Router 37

Mixed Groups: Interoperability Between IGMPv1, v2, and v3 38

Layer 2 Group Management 38

    Cisco Group Management Protocol 38

        The CGMP Leave Process 39

    Router-Port Group Management Protocol 39

Snooping 40

    IGMP Snooping 40

    Maintaining Group Membership 44

    Configuring IP IGMP Snooping 44

The Process of Packet Replication in a Switch 45

Protecting Layer 2 47

    Storm Control 47

Summary 49

References 49

Chapter 3 IP Multicast at Layer 3 51

Multicast Hosts 52

    Networked Groups: Client/Server 52

    Network Hosts 53

Multicast Routing: An Introduction to Protocol Independent Multicast and Multicast Trees 54

    Seeing the Forest Through the Trees 55

        What Is a Network Tree? 55

    Concepts of PIM Group States 57

        The (*,G) State Entry 58

        The (S,G) State Entry 60

        Reverse Path Forwarding 61

    Two Types of Trees 63

        Source Trees (Shortest Path Trees) 64

        Shared Trees 66

        Branches on a Tree 68

    PIM Neighbors 68

        Designated Routers 69

    PIM Messages: Join, Leave, Prune, Graft, and Assert 72

        Join 75

        Leave and Prune 75

        Graft 75

        Assert 75

PIM Modes 76

    PIM Dense-Mode 76

    PIM Sparse-Mode 77

    PIM Sparse-Dense Mode 80

    Multicast Flow at the Leaf 81

        Leaving an IGMP Group 85

    The Rendezvous Point and Shared Tree Dynamics 87

        From a Shared Tree to a Source Tree 94

    Building the Multicast Routing Information Base 101

        Multicast Routing Information Base and Multicast Forwarding Information Base 102

    PIM-BiDir 104

    PIM-SSM 110

Summary 119

Chapter 4 Protocol Independent Multicast 121

RP Overview 121

IP Multicast Domains 124

Basic PIM Configuration 128

    Static RP 129

        PIM Dense Mode 132

Dynamic RP Information Propagation 134

    Auto RP 135

        Sample Configuration: Auto-RP for IOS 137

        Sample Configuration: Auto-RP for IOS-XR 139

        Sample Configuration: Auto-RP for NX-OS 141

    BSR 143

        Sample Configuration: BSR in IOS 145

        Sample Configuration: BSR in IOS-XR 146

        Sample Configuration: BSR in NX-OS 148

Anycast RP 149

    Multicast Source Discovery Protocol 150

    PIM Anycast RP 151

        Sample Configuration: Anycast RP with MSDP on IOS 153

        Sample Configuration: Anycast with MSDP on IOS-XR 155

        Sample Configuration: Anycast on NX-OS 158

    Phantom RP 160

        Sample Configuration–Phantom RP on IOS 161

PIM SSM Configuration 162

Summary 164

Chapter 5 IP Multicast Design Considerations and Implementation 167

Multicast Group Scoping 167

    Organizational and Global Group Assignment Considerations 168

    IPv4 Considerations 170

Using Group Scoping for Hybrid Designs and RP Placement 173

    Multicast RP Design with MSDP Mesh Group 178

    Multicast RP Hybrid Design with Scoped Multicast Domains 181

    RP Placement 186

Multicast Traffic Engineering and Forwarding 186

    More on mRIB, mFIB, and RPF Checks 188

    Traffic Engineering Using IP Multipath Feature 197

    Multicast Traffic Engineering: Deterministic Path Selection 201

IP Multicast Best Practices and Security 209

    Before Enabling PIM 209

    General Best Practices 210

        Tuning the Network for Multicast 211

        Manually Selecting Designated Routers 212

    Basic Multicast Security 216

        Protecting Multicast Control-plane and Data-plane Resources 216

    Securing Multicast Domains with Boundaries and Borders 218

    Protecting Multicast RPs 225

    Best Practice and Security Summary 226

Putting It All Together 228

    Scenario: Multicaster’s Bank Corp. Media Services 228

Summary 238

Chapter 6 IPv6 Multicast Networks 239

IPv6 Fundamentals: A Quick Overview 239

IPv6 Layer 3 Multicast Group Addressing 242

    IPv6 Multicast Group Address Assignments 245

    IANA Unicast-Prefix—Based Multicast Address 247

    IPv6 Source-Specific Addressing 248

    Solicited-Node Multicast Addresses 249

    IPv6 Address Scoping and Schema Considerations 249

    Multicast-IPv6-Address-to-MAC-Address Mapping 250

IPv6 Layer 2 and Layer 3 Multicast 250

    Multicast Listener Discovery for IPv6 251

        MLDv1 251

        MLDv2 253

        Configuring MLD and the MLD Message Process 253

        Multicast Listener Discovery Joining a Group and Forwarding Traffic 255

        Leaving a MLD Group 258

        Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) Snooping 258

        Configuring MLD Snooping 259

    IPv6 Layer 3 Multicast and Protocol Independent Multicast 6 (PIM6) 261

        PIM6 Static mroute Entries 268

        PIM6 Group Modes 269

Summary 282

Chapter 7 Operating and Troubleshooting IP Multicast Networks 283

Multicast Troubleshooting Logic 283

Multicast Troubleshooting Methodology 283

    Baseline Check: Source and Receiver Verification 287

    State Verification 293

        RP Control-Plane Check 294

        Hop-by-Hop State Validation 299

Overview of Common Tools for Multicast Troubleshooting 303

    Ping Test 303

    SLA Test 304

    Common Multicast Debug Commands 307

        debug ip mpacket Command 307

        debug ip pim Command 307

        debug ip igmp Command 308

Multicast Troubleshooting 309

    Multicast Troubleshooting Case Study 310

        Baseline Check: Source and Receiver Verification 312

Important Multicast show Commands 326

    show ip igmp group Command 326

    show ip igmp interface/show igmp interface Commands 326

    show ip mroute/show mrib route Command 328

    show ip pim interface/show pim interface Commands 330

    show ip pim neighbor/show pim neighbor Commands 330

    show ip pim rp Command 331

    show ip pim rp mapping/show pim rp mapping Commands 332

Summary 333


9781587144592   TOC   9/8/2016


Om forfatteren

Josh Loveless, CCIE No. 16638, is a customer solutions architect for Cisco Systems. He has been with Cisco for four years, providing architecture and support services for Tier 1 service providers as well as for many of Cisco’s largest enterprise customers, specializing in large-scale routing and switching designs. Currently, Josh is helping Cisco’s customers in the defense and intelligence industries meet the challenges of an ever-changing technology landscape, designing secure automated networks with advanced capabilities, including IP multicast. Prior to joining Cisco, he spent 15 years working for large service providers and enterprises as both an engineer and an architect, as well as providing training and architecture services to some of Cisco’s trusted partners. Josh maintains two CCIE certifications, Routing and Switching and Service Provider.


Ray Blair, CCIE No. 7050, is a distinguished systems engineer and has been with Cisco Systems since 1999. He uses his years of experience to align technology solutions with business needs, insuring customer success. Ray started his career in 1988, designing industrial monitoring and communication systems. Since that time, he has been involved with server/database administration and the design, implementation, and management of networks that included networking technologies from ATM to ZMODEM. He maintains three CCIE certifications in Routing and Switching, Security, and Service Provider (No. 7050), is also a Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP), and a Certified Business Architect (No. 00298). Ray is coauthor of two Cisco Press books, Cisco Secure Firewall Services Module and Tcl Scripting for Cisco IOS. He speaks at many industry events and is a Cisco Live distinguished speaker.


Arvind Durai, CCIE No. 7016, is a director of solution integration for Cisco Advanced Services. His primary responsibility in the past 17 years has been in supporting major Cisco customers in the enterprise sector, including financial, retail, manufacturing, ecommerce, state government, utility (smart grid networks), and healthcare sectors. Some of his focuses have been on security, multicast, network virtualization, and data center, and he has authored several white papers and design guides on various technologies. He has been involved in multicast designs for several enterprise customers in different verticals. He is also one of the contributors in providing the framework for Advanced Services Multicast Audit tool that helps customers assess their operational multicast network to Industry best practices.


Arvind maintains two CCIE certifications: Routing and Switching and Security and also is a Certified Business Architect. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Electronics and Communication, a Master’s degree in Electrical Engineering (MS), and a Master’s degree in Business Administration (MBA). He is a coauthor of three Cisco Press books: Cisco Secure Firewall Services Module, Virtual Routing in the Cloud, and TcL Scripting for Cisco IOS. He has coauthored IEEE WAN smart grid architecture and presented in many industry forums, such as IEEE and Cisco Live.