Diversity of Capitalisms in Latin America
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-Robert Boyer, Institut des Ameriques, Paris, France.
This book defends the idea that there are significant structural and institutional differences between the countries in Latin America. Building off the results of a four-year research project, Bizberg argues against the idea that in Latin America there is one single type of capitalism-a hierarchical one-that is entangled in a vicious cycle. Rather, there are clusters of countries that have had similar historical trajectories, analogous structures, or comparable reactions to changes to the world economy, but have not all followed the same mode of development. Just as analysts have found a variety of capitalisms in developed countries, it is possible to identify the emergence of different types of capitalism in Latin America since the 1980s debt crisis. These varieties of capitalism are defined according to categories-including the articulation to the world economy, the role of the State, the structure of the political system and the action of civil society-which give rise to distinct wage relations, comprising the industrial relations system and the welfare regime.