Modern Psychometrics

The Science of Psychological Assessment

; Michal Kosinski ; David Stillwell

This popular text introduces the reader to all aspects of psychometric assessment, including its history, the construction and administration of traditional tests, and the latest techniques for psychometric assessment online. Les mer
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Legg i
Vår pris: 540,-

(Paperback) Fri frakt!
Leveringstid: Sendes innen 7 virkedager
På grunn av Brexit-tilpasninger og tiltak for å begrense covid-19 kan det dessverre oppstå forsinket levering.

Om boka

This popular text introduces the reader to all aspects of psychometric assessment, including its history, the construction and administration of traditional tests, and the latest techniques for psychometric assessment online.


Rust, Kosinski, and Stillwell begin with a comprehensive introduction to the increased sophistication in psychometric methods and regulation that took place during the 20th century, including the many benefits to governments, businesses, and customers. In this new edition, the authors explore the increasing influence of the internet, wherein everything we do on the internet is available for psychometric analysis, often by AI systems operating at scale and in real time. The intended and unintended consequences of this paradigm shift are examined in detail, and key controversies, such as privacy and the psychographic microtargeting of online messages, are addressed. Furthermore, this new edition includes brand-new chapters on item response theory, computer adaptive testing, and the psychometric analysis of the digital traces we all leave online.


Modern Psychometrics combines an up-to-date scientific approach with full consideration of the political and ethical issues involved in the implementation of psychometric testing in today's society. It will be invaluable to both undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as practitioners who are seeking an introduction to modern psychometric methods.

Fakta

Innholdsfortegnelse


1. The history and evolution of psychometric testing













Introduction
















What is psychometrics?
















Psychometrics in the 21st century
















History of assessment









Chinese origins


The ability to learn


The nineteenth century









Beginnings of psychometrics as a science









Intelligence testing


Eugenics and the dark decades









Psychometric testing of ability









The dark ages come to an end


An abundance of abilities









Tests of other psychological constructs









Personality


Integrity


Interests


Motivation


Values


Temperament


Attitude


Belief









Summary
























2. Constructing your own psychometric questionnaire




















The purpose of the questionnaire
















Making a blueprint
















Writing items









Alternate-choice items


Multiple-choice items


Rating-scale items


All questionnaires


Knowledge-based questionnaires


Person-based questionnaires









Designing the questionnaire
















Piloting the questionnaire
















Item analysis









Facility


Discrimination


Distractors









Obtaining the reliability









Cronbach's alpha


Split-half reliability









Assessing validity









Face validity


Content validity









Standardization
























3. The Psychometric principles




















Reliability









Test-retest reliability


Parallel-forms reliability


Split-half reliability


Interrater reliability


Internal consistency


The standard error of measurement (SEM)


Comparing test reliabilities


Restriction of range









Validity









Face validity


Content validity


Predictive validity


Concurrent validity


Construct validity


Differential validity









Standardization









Norm referencing


Criterion referencing









Equivalence









Differential item functioning


Measurement invariance


Adverse impact









Summary
























4. Psychometric measurement
















True-score theory
















Identification of latent traits with factor analysis









Spearman's two-factor theory


Vector algebra and factor rotation


Moving into more dimensions


Multidimensional scaling









Application of factor analysis to test construction






Eigenvalues


Identifying the number of factors to extract using the Kaiser criterion


Identifying the number of factors to extract using the Cattell scree test


Other techniques for identifying the number of factors to extract


Factor rotation


Rotation to simple structure


Orthogonal rotation


Oblique rotation






Limitations of the classical factor-analystic approach
















Criticisms of psychometric measurement theory









The Platonic true score


Psychological vs. physical true scores


Functional assessment and competency testing


Machine learning and the black box









Summary
























5. Item response theory and computer adaptive testing




















Introduction
















Item banks









The Rasch model


Assessment of educational standards


The Birnbaum model









The evolution of modern psychometrics









Computer adaptive testing


Item equating


Polytomous IRT









An intuitive graphical description of item tesponse theory









Limitations of classical test theory









A graphical Introduction to item response theory









The logistic curve


3PL-model: difficulty parameter


3PL model: discrimination parameter


3PL model: guessing parameter


The Fisher information function


The test information function and its relationship to the standard error of measurement


How to score an IRT test









Principles of computer adaptive testing
















Summary of item response theory
















Confirmatory factor analysis
























6. Personality theory




















Theories of personality









Psychoanalytic theory


Humanistic theory


Social learning theory


Behavioral genetics


Type and trait theories


Different approaches to personality assessment













Self-report techniques and personality profiles


Reports by others


Online digital footprints


Situational assessments


Projective measures


Observations of behavior


Task performance methods


Polygraph methods


Repertory grids









Sources and management of bias









Self-report techniques and personality profiles


Reports by others


Online digital footprints


Situational assessments


Projective measures


Observations of behavior


Task performance methods


Polygraph methods


Repertory grids









Informal methods of personality assessment
















State versus trait measures
















Ipsative scaling
















Spurious validity and the Barnum Effect
















Summary
























7. Personality assessment in the workplace




















Prediction of successful employment outcomes









Validation of personality questionnaires previously used in employment


Historical antecedents to the five-factor model


Stability of the five-factor model


Cross-cultural aspects of the five-factor model


Scale independence and the role of facets


Challenges to scale construction for the five-factor model


Impression management


Acquiescence


Response bias and factor structure


Development of the five OBPI personality scales









Assessing counterproductive behavior at work









The impact of behaviorism


Prepsychological theories of integrity


Modern integrity testing


Psychiatry and the medical model


The dysfunctional tendencies


The dark triad


Assessing integrity at work


The OBPI integrity scales









Conclusion
























8. Employing digital footprints in psychometrics




















Introduction
















Types of digital footprint









Usage logs


Language data


Mobile sensors


Images and audiovisual data









Typical applications of digital footprints in psychometrics









Replacing and complimenting traditional measures


New contexts and new constructs


Predicting future behavior


Studying human behavior


Supporting the development of traditional measures









Advantages and challenges of employing digital footprints in psychometrics









High ecological validity


Greater detail and longitude


Less control over the assessment environment


Greater speed and unobtrusiveness


Less privacy and control


No anonymity


Bias


Enrichment of existing constructs



Developing digital-footprint-based psychometric measures
Collecting digital footprints










How much data is needed?









Preparing digital footprints for analysis









Respondent-footprint matrix


Data sparsity









Reducing the dimensionality of the respondent-footprint matrix









Singular value decomposition


Latent Dirichlet allocation









Building prediction models
























9. Psychometrics in the era of the intelligent machine




















History of computerization in psychometrics









Computerized statistics


Computerized item banks


Computerized item generation


Automated advice and report systems









The evolution of AI in psychometrics









Expert systems


Neural networks (machine learning)


Parallel processing


Predicting with statistics and machine learning


Explainability









Psychometrics in cyberspace









What and where is cyberspace?


The medium is the message









Moral development in AI









Kohlberg's theory of moral development


Do machines have morals?


The laws of robotics


Artificial general intelligence









Conclusion

Om forfatteren

John Rust is the founder of The Psychometrics Centre at the University of Cambridge, UK. He is a Senior Member of Darwin College, UK, and an Associate Fellow of the Leverhulme Centre for the Future of Intelligence, University of Cambridge, UK.


Michal Kosinski is an associate professor of organizational behavior at Stanford Graduate School of Business, USA.


David Stillwell is the academic director of the Psychometrics Centre at the University of Cambridge, UK. He is also a reader in computational social science at the Cambridge Judge Business School, UK.