Petroleum Refining Design and Applications Handbook

Rules of Thumb, Process Planning, Scheduling, and Flowsheet Design, Process Piping Design, Pumps, Compressors, and Process Safety Incidents

A must-read for any practicing engineer or student in this area


There is a renaissance that is occurring in chemical and process engineering, and it is crucial for today's scientists, engineers, technicians, and operators to stay current. Les mer
Vår pris
3017,-

(Innbundet) Fri frakt!
Leveringstid: Sendes innen 7 virkedager

Innbundet
Legg i
Innbundet
Legg i
Vår pris: 3017,-

(Innbundet) Fri frakt!
Leveringstid: Sendes innen 7 virkedager

Om boka

A must-read for any practicing engineer or student in this area


There is a renaissance that is occurring in chemical and process engineering, and it is crucial for today's scientists, engineers, technicians, and operators to stay current. This book offers the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of the most significant and recent changes to petroleum refining, presenting the state-of-the-art to the engineer, scientist, or student. Useful as a textbook, this is also an excellent, handy go-to reference for the veteran engineer, a volume no chemical or process engineering library should be without.

Fakta

Innholdsfortegnelse

Preface xv


Acknowledgements xvii


13 Rules of Thumb-Summary 1


13.0 Introduction 1


14 Process Planning, Scheduling, and Flowsheet Design 19


14.1 Introduction 19


14.2 Organizational Structure 20


14.2.1 Process Design Scope 21


14.3 Role of the Process Design Engineer 23


14.4 Computer-Aided Flowsheeting 24


14.5 Flowsheets-Types 26


14.5.1 Block Diagram 26


14.5.2 Process Flowsheet or Flow Diagram 26


14.5.3 Piping Flowsheet or Mechanical Flow Diagram, or Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) 27


14.5.4 Combined Process and Piping Flowsheet or Diagram 32


14.5.5 Utility Flowsheets or Diagrams (ULDs) 32


14.5.6 Special Flowsheets or Diagrams 36


14.5.7 Special or Supplemental Aids 36


14.6 Flowsheet Presentation 36


14.7 General Arrangements Guide 36


14.8 Computer-Aided Flowsheet Design/Drafting 38


14.9 Flowsheet Symbols 40


14.10 Line Symbols and Designations 43


14.11 Materials of Construction for Lines 46


14.12 Test Pressure for Lines 47


14.13 Working Schedules 56


14.14 Information Checklists 61


14.15 Basic Engineering and Front End Engineering Design (FEED) 63


References 64


15 Fluid Flow 65


15.1 Introduction 65


15.2 Flow of Fluids in Pipes 65


15.3 Scope 70


15.4 Basis 72


15.5 Incompressible Flow 72


15.6 Compressible Flow: Vapors and Gases 73


15.7 Important Pressure Level References 75


15.8 Factors of "Safety" for Design Basis 75


15.9 Pipe, Fittings, and Valves 75


15.10 Pipe 75


15.11 Total Line Pressure Drop 78


15.11.1 Relationship Between the Pipe Diameter and Pressure Drop ( P) 80


15.11.2 Economic Balance in Piping and Optimum Pipe Diameter 82


15.12 Reynolds Number, Re (Sometimes Used NRe) 83


15.13 Pipe Relative Roughness 85


15.14 Darcy Friction Factor, f 85


15.15 Friction Head Loss (Resistance) in Pipe, Fittings, and Connections 94


15.15.1 Pressure Drop in Straight Pipe: Incompressible Fluid 94


15.16 Oil System Piping 96


15.16.1 Density and Specific Gravity 97


15.16.2 Specific Gravity of Blended Products 98


15.16.3 Viscosity 98


15.16.4 Viscosity of Blended Products 100


15.16.5 Blending Index, H 101


15.16.6 Vapor Pressure 101


15.16.7 Velocity 101


15.16.8 Frictional Pressure Drop, ft of Liquid Head 104


15.16.9 Hazen-Williams Equation 105


15.16.10 Transmission Factor 107


15.16.11 Miller Equation 112


15.16.12 Shell-MIT Equation 113


15.17 Pressure Drop in Fittings, Valves, and Connections 116


15.17.1 Incompressible Fluid 116


15.17.2 Velocity and Velocity Head 116


15.17.3 Equivalent Lengths of Fittings 117


15.17.4 L/D Values in Laminar Region 120


15.17.5 Validity of K Values 122


15.17.6 Laminar Flow 122


15.17.7 Expressing All Pipe Sizes in Terms of One Diameter 124


15.17.8 Loss Coefficient 128


15.17.9 Sudden Enlargement or Contraction 134


15.17.10 For Sudden Contractions 134


15.17.11 Piping Systems 136


15.18 Resistance of Valves 136


15.19 Flow Coefficients for Valves, Cv 137


15.20 Flow Meters 138


15.20.1 Process Design of Orifice Meter 138


15.20.2 Nozzles and Orifices 142


Conclusion 167


15.21 Estimation of Pressure Loss Across Control Valves 169


15.22 The Direct Design of a Control Valve 173


15.23 Water Hammer 173


15.24 Friction Pressure Drop for Compressible Fluid Flow 175


15.24.1 Compressible Fluid Flow in Pipes 176


15.24.2 Maximum Flow and Pressure Drop 177


15.24.3 Sonic Conditions Limiting Flow of Gases and Vapors 177


15.24.4 The Mach Number, Ma 182


15.24.5 Critical Pressure Ratio 197


15.24.6 Adiabatic Flow 200


15.24.7 The Expansion Factor, Y 201


15.24.8 Misleading Rules of Thumb for Compressible Fluid Flow 203


15.24.9 Other Simplified Compressible Flow Methods 204


15.24.10 Friction Drop for Flow of Vapors, Gases and Steam 205


15.25 Darcy Rational Relation for Compressible Vapors and Gases 213


15.26 Velocity of Compressible Fluids in Pipe 215


15.27 Procedure 228


15.28 Friction Drop for Compressible Natural Gas in Long Pipe Lines 231


15.29 Panhandle-A Gas Flow Formula 235


15.30 Modified Panhandle Flow Formula 237


15.31 American Gas Association (AGA) Dry Gas Method 237


15.32 Complex Pipe Systems Handling Natural (or Similar) Gas 237


15.33 Two-Phase Liquid and Gas Flow in Process Piping 239


15.33.1 Flow Patterns 239


15.33.2 Flow Regimes 242


15.33.3 Pressure Drop 243


15.33.4 Erosion-Corrosion 248


15.33.5 Total System Pressure Drop 250


15.33.6 Pipe Sizing Rules 257


15.33.7 A Solution for All Two-Phase Problems 261


15.33.8 Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Vertical Down Flow 270


15.33.9 Pressure Drop in Vacuum Systems 277


15.33.10 Low Absolute Pressure Systems for Air 279


15.33.11 Vacuum for Other Gases and Vapors 281


15.33.12 Pressure Drop for Flashing Liquids 284


15.33.13 Sizing Condensate Return Lines 286


15.34 UniSim Design PIPESYS 295


15.35 Pipe Line Safety 300


15.36 Mitigating Pipeline Hazards 301


15.37 Examples of Safety Design Concerns 301


15.38 Safety Incidents Related With Pipeworks and Materials of Construction 303


15.39 Lessons Learned From Piping Designs 319


15.40 Design of Safer Piping 320


15.40.1 Best Practices for Process Piping 320


15.40.2 Designing Liquid Piping 321


15.40.3 Best Practices for Liquid Piping 322


Nomenclature 324


Greek Symbols 326


Subscripts 327


References 327


16 Pumps 331


16.1 Pumping of Liquids 331


16.2 Pump Design Standardization 336


16.3 Basic Parts of a Centrifugal Pump 336


16.4 Centrifugal Pump Selection 341


16.5 Hydraulic Characteristics for Centrifugal Pumps 359


16.6 Suction Head or Suction Lift, hs 367


16.7 Discharge Head, hd 369


16.8 Velocity Head 369


16.9 Friction 370


16.10 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) and Pump Suction 370


16.11 General Suction System 378


16.12 Reductions in NPSHR 384


16.13 Charting NPSHR Values of Pumps 384


16.14 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) 386


16.15 NPSH Requirement for Liquids Saturation With Dissolved Gases 388


16.16 Specific Speed 390


16.17 Rotative Speed 394


16.18 Pumping Systems and Performance 395


16.19 Power Requirements for Pumping Through Process Lines 399


16.20 Affinity Laws 405


16.21 Centrifugal Pump Efficiency 417


16.22 Effects of Viscosity 421


16.23 Temperature Rise and Minimum Flow 436


16.24 Centrifugal Pump Specifications 440


16.25 Number of Pumping Units 441


16.26 Rotary Pumps 448


16.27 Reciprocating Pumps 452


16.28 Pump Selection 456


16.29 Selection Rules-of-Thumb 456


16.30 Case Studies 459


16.31 Pump Cavitations 464


16.32 Pump Fundamentals 474


16.33 Operating Philosophy 475


16.34 Piping 485


16.35 Troubleshooting Checklist for Centrifugal Pumps 485


Nomenclature 493


Subscripts 494


Greek Symbols 495


References 495


17 Compression Equipment 497


17.1 Introduction 497


17.2 General Application Guide 498


17.3 Specification Guides 499


17.4 General Considerations for Any Type of Compressor Flow Conditions 501


17.4.1 Fluid Properties 501


17.4.2 Compressibility 502


17.4.3 Corrosive Nature 502


17.4.4 Moisture 502


17.4.5 Special Conditions 502


17.5 Reciprocating Compression 503


17.6 Suction and Discharge Valves 514


17.7 Specification Sheet 523


17.8 Performance Considerations 524


17.9 Compressor Performance Characteristics 557


17.10 Hydrogen Use in the Refinery 594


17.10.1 IsoTherming Technology for Kerosene, Vacuum Gas Oil, and Diesel Hydroprocessing 595


Nomenclature 829


Greek Symbols 832


Subscripts 832


References 833


Glossary of Petroleum and Technical Terminology 837


Appendix D 929


Appendix E 1005


Index 1019


About the Author 1025

Om forfatteren

A. Kayode Coker PhD, is Engineering Consultant for AKC Technology, an Honorary Research Fellow at the University of Wolverhampton, U.K., a former Engineering Coordinator at Saudi Aramco Shell Refinery Company (SASREF) and Chairman of the department of Chemical Engineering Technology at Jubail Industrial College, Saudi Arabia. He has been a chartered chemical engineer for more than 30 years. He is a Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, U.K. (C. Eng., FIChemE), and a senior member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE). He holds a B.Sc. honors degree in Chemical Engineering, a Master of Science degree in Process Analysis and Development and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering, all from Aston University, Birmingham, U.K., and a Teacher's Certificate in Education at the University of London, U.K. He has directed and conducted short courses extensively throughout the world and has been a lecturer at the university level. His articles have been published in several international journals. He is an author of six books in chemical engineering, a contributor to the Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design, Vol 61 and a certified train - the mentor trainer. A Technical Report Assessor and Interviewer for chartered chemical engineers (IChemE) in the U.K. He is a member of the International Biographical Centre in Cambridge, U.K. (IBC) as Leading Engineers of the World for 2008. Also, he is a member of International Who's Who of ProfessionalsTM and Madison Who's Who in the U.S.