Petroleum Refining

Technology, Economics, and Markets, Sixth Edition

; Arno De Klerk ; James H. Gary ; Glenn E. Handwerk

For four decades, Petroleum Refining has guided thousands of readers toward a reliable understanding of the field, and through the years has become the standard text in many schools and universities around the world offering petroleum refining classes, for self-study, training, and as a reference for industry professionals. Les mer
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For four decades, Petroleum Refining has guided thousands of readers toward a reliable understanding of the field, and through the years has become the standard text in many schools and universities around the world offering petroleum refining classes, for self-study, training, and as a reference for industry professionals.


The sixth edition of this perennial bestseller continues in the tradition set by Jim Gary as the most modern and authoritative guide in the field. Updated and expanded to reflect new technologies, methods, and topics, the book includes new discussion on the business and economics of refining, cost estimation and complexity, crude origins and properties, fuel specifications, and updates on technology, process units, and catalysts.


The first half of the book is written for a general audience to introduce the primary economic and market characteristics of the industry and to describe the inputs and outputs of refining. Most of this material is new to this edition and can be read independently or in parallel with the rest of the text. In the second half of the book, a technical review of the main process units of a refinery is provided, beginning with distillation and covering each of the primary conversion and treatment processes. Much of this material was reorganized, updated, and rewritten with greater emphasis on reaction chemistry and the role of catalysis in applications.








Petroleum Refining: Technology, Economics, and Markets is a book written for users, the practitioners of refining, and all those who want to learn more about the field.

Fakta

Innholdsfortegnelse

Part 1. Markets and Economics


Section 1: Industry Structure and Characteristics


1. Performance


1.1 Refinery Supply Chains


1.1.1 Input-Output Model


1.1.2 Infrastructure


1.1.3 Location


1.1.4 Commercial Requirements


1.2 Performance


1.3 Refinery Economics


1.4 Refining Yields


1.5 Refining Margins


1.5.1 Gross Margin


1.5.2 Net Margin and Netback


1.5.3 Application


1.6 Margin Comparisons


1.6.1 Sweet vs. Sour Crude


1.6.2 Cracker vs. Coker Refinery


1.7 Factors That Impact Margins


1.8 Crack Spreads


1.9 Market Data


References


2. Products


2.1 Overview


2.2 Petroleum Gases


2.2.1 Methane


2.2.2 Ethane


2.2.3 Propane


2.2.4 Butane


2.2.5 Natural Gas Liquids


2.3 Light Distillates


2.3.1 Naphthas


2.3.2 Gasolines


2.4 Middle Distillates


2.4.1 Jet Fuel


2.4.2 Kerosene


2.4.3 Automotive Diesel


2.4.4 Marine Diesel


2.4.5 Light Fuel Oil


2.5 Heavy Fuel Oils


2.6 Specialty Products


2.6.1 Base Oils and Lubricants


2.6.2 Engine Oils


2.6.3 Greases


2.6.4 Waxes


2.6.5 Bitumen


2.6.6 Petroleum Coke


2.6.7 Carbon Black


References


3. Processes


3.1 Overview


3.2 Separation


3.2.1 Perfect Batch Distillation


3.2.2 Distillation Curves


3.2.3 Fractions


3.2.4 Atmospheric Distillation


3.2.5 Vacuum Distillation


3.3 Conversion


3.3.1 Thermal Cracking


3.3.2 Catalytic Cracking


3.3.3 Hydrocracking


3.3.4 Coking


3.4 Finishing


3.4.1 Hydrotreating


3.4.2 Catalytic Reforming


3.4.3 Alkylation


3.4.4 Isomerization


References


4. Prices


4.1 Introduction


4.2 Price Formation


4.3 Global Oil and Product Markets


4.4 Price Characteristics


4.4.1 Prices are Volatile


4.4.2 Prices are Unpredictable


4.4.3 Business Cycle Impacts are Periodic


4.4.4 Price Shocks


4.4.5 Market Factors Dominate Price Signals


4.4.6 Private Factors are Secondary in Price Formation


4.5 Supply and Demand


4.5.1 Supply Curves


4.5.2 Demand Curves


4.5.3 Equilibrium


4.6 Market Factors


4.6.1 Demand


4.6.2 Supply


4.6.3 Production Cost


4.6.4 OPEC


4.6.5 Spare Production Capacity


4.6.6 Supply Disruptions


4.6.7 Technology Impacts


4.7 Private Factors


4.7.1 Quality


4.7.2 Yield


4.8 World Production circa 2017


4.9 Refined Product Prices


References


5. Potpourri


5.1 Business Model


5.1.1 Required Spending


5.1.2 Discretionary Spending


5.1.3 Capital Investments


5.2 Company Classification


5.2.1 Firm Type


5.2.2 Ownership


5.2.3 Level of Integration


5.2.4 Business Objectives


5.3. U.S. and World Capacity Trends


5.3.1 Distillation


5.3.2 Coking


5.3.3 Catalytic Cracking


5.3.4 Hydrocracking


5.3.5 Hydrotreating


5.3.6 Reforming, Alkylation, Isomerization


5.3.7 Aromatics and Lubricants


5.3.8 Hydrogen


5.3.9 Sulfur


5.3.10 Asphalt


5.4. U.S. Capacity Correlations


5.5 Market Valuation


5.6 Capital Investment


References


Section 2: Cost Estimation and Complexity


6. Cost Estimation


6.1 Construction Cost Factors


6.1.1 ISBL


6.1.2 USGC Reference


6.1.3 Project Type


6.1.4 Unit Addition vs. Grassroots Refinery


6.1.5 Process Technology


6.1.6 Process Severity


6.1.7 Unit Requirements


6.1.8 Contract Type


6.1.9 Actual vs. Estimated Cost


6.1.10 Time


6.1.11 Location


6.2 Unit Cost


6.2.1 Source Data


6.2.2 Sample Size


6.2.3 Normalization


6.3 Cost Functions


6.3.1 Specification


6.3.2 Dependent Variable


6.3.3 Parameter Estimation


6.3.4 Data Processing


6.3.5 Data Exclusion


6.3.6 Cost Envelopes


6.4 USGC Grassroots Construction Cost


6.5 Operating Cost Factors


6.5.1 Common vs. Unique Factors


6.5.2 Utility Prices


6.5.3 Capacity, Complexity, Age


6.5.4 Time


6.5.5 Location


6.5.6 Exceptional Events


6.6 Operating Expenses


6.6.1 Data Sources


6.6.2 Consolidation Levels


6.7 U.S. Operating Cost Statistics, 2010-2014


References


7. Refinery Complexity


7.1 Ideal Refinery


7.2 Nelson Complexity Index


7.2.1 Motivation


7.2.2 Complexity Factor


7.2.3 Refinery Complexity


7.3 Complexity Factors


7.3.1 Definition


7.3.2 Measurement


7.3.3 Complexity Cross Factor


7.3.4 Uncertainty


7.3.5 Traditional Approach


7.4 Refinery Complexity


7.5 U.S. and World Statistics circa 2018


7.5.1 Regional Capacity


7.5.2 U.S. Refining Complexity


7.5.3 Largest World Refineries


7.5.4 Conversion Capacity


7.5.5 FCC-Equivalent Capacity


7.6 Complexity Equation


7.7 Cost Estimation


7.8 Complexity Factor at Reference Capacity


7.8.1 Specification


7.8.2 U.S. CFRC Statistics


References


8. Classification


8.1 Refinery Categories


8.2 Very Simple Refinery


8.3 Simple Refinery


8.4 Complex Refinery


8.5 Krotz Springs, Louisiana


8.6 St. Paul Park, Minnesota


9. Complexity Applications


9.1 Introduction


9.2 Complexity Functional


9.2.1 Reference Capacity Approach Extension


9.2.2 Factor Functional Average


9.2.3 Evaluation


9.2.4 Closed-Form Expressions


9.2.5 Comparison


9.2.6 U.S. Refinery Complexity


9.3 Complexity Moments


9.4 Spatial Complexity


9.5 Replacement Cost


9.6 Sales Price Models


9.6.1 Asset Transactions


9.6.2 Formulation


9.6.3 Constraints


9.7 Complexity Barrels


9.8 Inverse Problem


9.8.1 Three Refinery Example


9.8.2 Matrix Formulation


References


10. Modern Refineries


10.1 Hydrocracker


10.2 Lubes


10.3 Integrated/Petrochemical


Section 3: Crude Oil and Properties


11. Origin and Composition


11.1 Geologic Time


11.2 Generation, Migration and Accumulation


11.2.1 Source Rock


11.2.2 Generation


11.2.3 Migration


11.2.4 Accumulation


11.2.5 Sedimentary Basins


11.3 The Hydrocarbon Source


11.3.1 Origin


11.3.2 Kerogen Type


11.3.3 Oil Window


11.3.4 Transformation Sequence


11.4 Molecular Composition


11.4.1 Naming Organic Chemicals


11.4.2 Early Classifications


11.4.3 Hydrocarbons


11.4.4 Paraffin (Alkane) Series


11.4.5 Naphthene (Cycloparaffin) Series


11.4.6 Aromatic (Benzene) Series


11.5 Crude Oil Classification


11.5.1 Component Groups


11.5.2 Ternary Diagram


11.5.3 Tissot-Welte Classification


11.5.4 Crude Oil Classes


11.5.6 Marine vs. Nonmarine Organic Matter


11.5.7 High Sulfur vs. Low Sulfur Oils


11.6 Alteration and Thermal Maturity Pathways


11.6.1 Thermal Alteration


11.6.2 Deasphalting


11.6.3 Biodegradation


11.6.4 Water Washing


Reference


12. Crude Quality


12.1 Indicators


12.1.1 Color


12.1.2 Density


12.1.3 Heteroatoms


12.1.4 Chemical Structure


12.1.5 Viscosity


12.2 Classification


12.3 Blends of Crude Oils


12.3.1 Additive Properties


12.3.2 Nonadditive Properties


References


13. Distillation Profile


13.1 Distillation Curves


13.2 Laboratory Methods


13.2.1 Standards


13.2.2 ASTM D86


13.2.3 ASTM D1160


13.2.4 ASTM D2892


13.2.5 ASTM D2887


13.2.6 ASTM D6352, D7169


13.3 Hempel Method


13.3.1 Procedure


13.3.2 40 mmHg Pressure Correction


13.3.3 Temperatures Beyond 790 DegreesF


13.3.4 Gravity Midpercent


13.3.5 Heavy Hydrocarbons


13.4 Distillation Profile Summary


13.5 Hasting Field, Texas


13.6 North Slope Crude, Alaska


References


14. Crude Properties


14.1 Bayon Choctaw and West Hackberry Blends


14.2 Crude Oil Assay


14.3 Chemical Properties


14.3.1 Elemental Analysis


14.2.2 PNA Composition


14.3.3 Carbon Residue


14.4 Composition


14.4.1 Carbon Hydrogen Ratio


14.4.2 Sulfur


14.4.3 Nitrogen


14.4.4 Metals


14.4.5 Asphaltenes


14.4.6 Resins


14.4.7 Waxes


14.4.8 Salt Content


14.4.9 Acid Number


14.5 Physical Properties


14.5.1 Molecular Weight


14.5.2 API Gravity


14.5.3 UOP Characterization Factor


14.5.4 Viscosity


14.5.5 Pour Point


14.5.6 Reid Vapor Pressure


References


15. Fraction Characterization


15.1 Correlation Relations


15.2 Carbon Hydrogen Weight Ratio


15.3 Carbon Residue


15.4 Asphaltene Content


15.5 Molecular Weight


15.6 Aniline Point


15.7 Smoke Point


15.8 Viscosity


15.9 Refractive Index


15.10 Cloud Point


15.11 Pour Point


15.12 Freezing Point


15.13 Cetane Index


15.14 Molecular Type Composition


References


Section 4: Fuel Specifications


16. Standards, Specifications and Fuel Quality


16.1 Types of Specifications


16.2 Consensus Specifications Definitions


16.3 Test Methods


16.4 Transportation Fuel Specifications


16.4.1 Gasoline - ASTM D4814


16.4.2 Jet Fuel - ASTM D1653


16.4.3 Diesel - ASTM D975


16.4.4 European Automotive Fuels


16.5 Mandatory and Suggested Specifications


16.6 Enforcement


16.7 Fuel Quality


16.8 Properties Not in Specifications


References


17. Gasoline


17.1 Introduction


17.2 Octane Number


17.3 Volatility


17.3.1 Vapor Pressure


17.3.2 Distillation Profile


17.3.3 Vapor-Liquid Ratio


17.3.4 Vapor Lock Index


17.3.5 Drivability Index


17.3.6 Volatility Specifications and Schedules


17.4 Composition


17.5 Corrosion


17.6 Storage and Stability


17.7 Energy Content


17.7.1 Heating Value


17.7.2 Power


17.7.3 Fuel Economy


17.8 Additives and Blending Components


17.9 Fuel Ethanol for Blending


17.9.1 Purity


17.9.2 Water, Methanol, Chloride Content


17.9.3 Acidity


17.9.4 Sulfur Content


17.9.5 Denaturants


17.9.6 Workmanship


17.10 Aviation Gasoline


References


18. Jet Fuels


18.1 Introduction


18.2 Specifications


18.3 Fluidity


18.4 Volatility


18.5 Stability


18.6 Heat Content


18.7 Combustion Characteristics


18.8 Composition


18.9 Lubricity


18.10 Corrosion


18.11 Contaminants


18.12 Additives


References


19. Diesel Fuel


19.1 Introduction


19.2 Specification


19.3 Cetane Number


19.4 Distillation


19.5 Flash Point


19.6 Lubricity


19.7 Ash Content


19.8 Carbon Residue


19.9 Low Temperature Operability


19.10 Stability


19.11 Blendstocks


19.12 Biodiesel


19.13 Other Middle Distillate Products


References


20. Product Blending


20.1 Introduction


20.2 Gasoline Blendstocks


20.3 Reid Vapor Pressure


20.3.1 Theoretical Method


20.3.2 Blending Indices


20.4 Octane Blending


20.5 Blending for Other Properties


20.6 Gasoline Blending Case Study


20.7 Ethanol Blending


20.8 Diesel and Jet Fuel Blendstocks


References


Part 2 - Technology


Section 5: Separation Processes


21. Crude Oil Desalting


21.1 Introduction


21.2 Desalting Technology


21.2.1 General Description


21.2.2 Tight Emulsions and Metal Containing Organic Compounds


References


22. Crude Oil Distillation


2.1 Introduction


22.2 Atmospheric Distillation


22.2.1 General Description


22.2.2 Front-End Design Configurations


22.2.3 Light Naphtha Stabilizer Column


22.3 Vacuum Distillation


References


23. Solvent Deasphalting


23.1 Introduction


23.2 Solvent Deasphalting Technology


23.2.1 General Description


23.2.2 Bitumen Froth Treatment


23.3 Deasphalting


23.3.1 Oil Solubility


23.3.2 Asphaltenes


References


Section 6: Residue Conversion Processes


24. Visbreaking


24.1 Introduction


24.2 Visbreaking Technology


24.2.1 Feed Material


24.2.2 General Description


24.2.3 Hydrovisbreaking and Hydrogen Donor Visbreaking


24.3 Thermal Cracking


24.3.1 Reaction Chemistry


24.3.2 Conversion


24.3.3 Equivalent Residence Time


24.4 Visbreaker Operation


24.4.1 Operating Parameters


24.4.2 Fuel Properties


24.4.3 Feed Pretreatment


References


25. Coking


25.1 Introduction


25.2 Coking Technology


25.2.1 Feed Material


25.2.2 Delayed Coking


25.2.3 Fluid Coking


25.3 Thermal Carbonization


25.3.1 Reaction Chemistry and Phase Separation


25.3.2 Role of Solids


25.4 Delayed Coker Operation


25.4.1 Operating Parameters


25.4.2 Coke Properties


25.4.3 Fuel Properties


25.4.4 Yield Estimation


25.5 Fluid Coker Operation


25.5.1 Operating Parameters


25.5.2 Fuel Properties


25.5.3 Yield Estimates


References


26. Residue Hydroconversion


26.1 Introduction


26.2 Residue Hydroconversion Technology


26.2.1 Feed Material


26.2.2 Reactor Types


26.2.3 Fixed Bed Residue Hydroconversion


26.2.4 Moving Bed Residue Hydroconversion


26.2.5 Ebullated Bed Residue Hydroconversion


26.5.6 Slurry Bed Residue Hydroconversion


26.3 Thermal Conversion Combined with Catalytic Hydrotreating


26.3.1 Reaction Chemistry


26.3.2 Sediment Formation


26.3.3 Residue Hydroconversion Catalysts


26.4 Residue Hydroconversion Operation


26.4.1 Operating Parameters


26.4.2 Product Yields


References


27. Fluid Catalytic Cracking


27.1 Introduction


27.2 Fluid Catalytic Cracking Technology


27.2.1 Feed Material


27.2.2 General Description


27.2.3 Residue Fluid Catalytic Cracking


27.2.4 FCC for Petrochemicals Production


27.3 Catalytic Cracking


27.3.1 Reaction Chemistry


27.3.2 Conversion


27.3.3 FCC Catalysts


27.3.4 Catalyst Deactivation and Equilibrium Catalyst


27.3.5 Catalyst Additives


27.4 Fluid Catalytic Cracking Operation


27.4.1 Operating Parameters


27.4.2 Pressure Balance


27.4.3 Heat Balance


27.4.4 Fuel Properties


27.4.5 Feed Pretreating


27.4.6 Yield Estimation


References


28. Hydrocracking


28.1 Introduction


28.2 Hydrocracking Technology


28.2.1 Feed Material


28.2.2 General Description


28.2.3 Hydroisomerization to Produce Lubricant Base Oil


28.2.4 Hydrodewaxing


28.4.5 Mild Hydrocracking


28.3 Catalytic Hydrocracking


28.3.1 Reaction Chemistry


28.3.2 Conversion


28.3.3 Hydrocracking Catalysts


28.3.4 Competitive Adsorption


28.4 Hydrocracker Operation


28.4.1 Operating Parameters


28.4.2 Fuel Properties


28.4.3 Yield Estimates


References


Section 7: Distillate, Naphtha, and Gas Conversion Processes


29. Hydrotreating


29.1 Introduction


29.2 Hydrotreating Technology


29.2.1 Feed Material


29.2.2 General Description


29.3 Catalytic Hydrotreating


29.3.1 Reaction Chemistry


29.3.2 Reaction Thermodynamics


29.3.3 Conversion


29.3.4 Hydrotreating Catalysts


29.4 Hydrotreater Operation


References


30. Butane and Naphtha Hydroisomerization


30.1 Introduction


30.2 C4-C6 Hydroisomerization Technology


30.2.1 Feed Material


30.2.2 General Description


30.2.3 Process Configurations with Recycle


30.3 Catalytic Hydroisomerization


30.3.1 Reaction Chemistry


30.3.2 Reaction Thermodynamics


30.3.3 Hydroisomerization Catalysts


30.4 C4-C6 Hydroisomerization Operation


30.4.1 Operating Parameters


30.4.2 Fuel Properties


References


31. Catalytic Naphtha Reforming


31.1 Introduction


31.2 Naphtha Reforming Technology


31.2.1 Feed Material


31.2.2 General Description


31.2.3 Catalyst Regeneration Configurations


31.2.4 Catalyst Regeneration


31.2.5 Aromatization for Petrochemical Production


31.3 Catalytic Naphtha Reforming


31.3.1 Reaction Chemistry


31.3.2 Conventional Reforming Catalysts


31.4 Catalytic Naphtha Reforming Operation


31.4.1 Operating Conditions


31.4.2 Fuel Properties


31.4.3 Yield Estimation


References


32. Aliphatic Alkylation


32.1 Introduction


32.2 Aliphatic Alkylation Technology


32.2.1 Feed Material


32.2.2 HF Catalyzed Aliphatic Alkylation


32.2.3 H2SO4 Catalyzed Aliphatic Alkylation


32.2.4 Comparison of HF and H2SO4 Catalyzed Processes


32.3 Reaction Chemistry


32.3.1 Liquid Acid Catalysts


32.3.2 Solid Acid Catalysts


32.4 Aliphatic Alkylation Operation


32.4.1 Operating Parameters


32.4.2 Fuel Properties


References


33. Olefin Oligomerization


33.1 Introduction


33.2 Olefin Oligomerization Technology


33.2.1 Feed Material


33.2.2 Fixed Bed Olefin Oligomerization


33.2.3 Liquid Phase Olefin Oligomerization


33.2.4 Catalyst Selection


33.2.5 Refinery Benzene Reduction


33.3 Reaction Chemistry


33.3.1 Acid Catalysts


33.3.2 Organometallic Catalysts


33.4 Oligomerization Operation


33.4.1 Operating Parameters


33.4.2 Fuel Properties


References


34. Etherification


34.1 Introduction


34.2 Etherification Technology


34.2.1 Feed Material


34.2.2 General Description


34.3 Etherification


34.3.1 Reaction Chemistry


34.3.2 Reaction Thermodynamics


34.3.3 Etherification Catalysts


34.4 Etherification Operation


34.4.1 Operating Parameters


34.4.2 Volumetric Yield


34.4.3 Fuel Properties of Alcohols and Ethers


References


Section 8: Lubricants and Supporting Technologies


35. Lubricant Base Oils


35.1 Introduction


35.2 Lubricant Base Oil Production Technology


35.2.1 Feed Material


35.2.2 Technology Selection


35.2.3 Propane Deasphalting


35.2.4 Solvent Extraction


35.2.5 Solvent Dewaxing


35.2.6 Clay Treating


References


36. Supporting Technologies


36.1 Hydrogen Production and Purification


36.2 Light Hydrocarbon Gas Processing


36.3 Acid Gas Removal


36.4 Sulfur Recovery From Acid Gas


36.4.1 Claus Process


36.4.2 Claus Tail Gas Treatment


References




Appendix A. Definitions



Appendix B. Chapter Discussion


Appendix C. Chapter Problems

Om forfatteren

Mark J. Kaiser is Marathon Professor and Director of the Research and Development Division at the Center for Energy Studies at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, where he has worked since 2001. His research interests cover the oil, gas, and refining industry, cost estimation, economic evaluation, fiscal analysis, infrastructure modeling, and regulatory policy. Dr Kaiser has authored over 200 academic publications and has secured grants of several million dollars over his career. He is the author of four research monographs: Offshore Wind Installation and Decommissioning Cost Modeling (Springer-Verlag 2012), The Offshore Drilling Industry and Rig Construction in the United States (Springer-Verlag 2013), Offshore Service Industry and Logistics Modeling in the Gulf of Mexico (Springer-Verlag 2015), and Decommissioning Forecasting and Operating Cost Estimation (Elsevier 2019). He has also developed several commercial reports on offshore decommissioning, and serves on the editorial boards of over two dozen academic journals, his favorites being Energy, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, and Petroleum Science and Technology. Dr. Kaiser occasionally consults and serves as technical expert to government agencies and private firms, and in the first part of his career worked in the fields of convex geometry, geometric optimization, and computational metrology. Dr. Kaiser received a Ph.D. degree in industrial engineering in 1991 from Purdue University.


Arno de Klerk is the Nexen Professor of Catalytic Reaction Engineering, and the NSERC/Nexen-CNOOC Ltd Industrial Research Chair in Field Upgrading and Asphaltenes Processing at the University of Alberta, Canada. He grew up in South Africa, where he spent part of his early career as a forensic analyst, and from 1995 to 2008 worked as a process engineer in the Research and Development Center of Sasol in refinery conversion processes and catalysis. His refining work focused mainly on transportation fuel and petrochemical production starting from synthetic oil from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and oil from coal pyrolysis. It led to the monographs Catalysis in the Refining of Fischer-Tropsch Syncrude (Royal Society of Chemistry 2010) with Edward Furimsky, and Fischer-Tropsch Refining (Wiley-VCH 2011). In 2009, he took up a position in the Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering at the University of Alberta working on the conversion of heavy oils and oil sands bitumen, and remaining active in the fields of synthetic fuel production and refining. He is editor-in-chief of the journal Applied Petrochemical Research (Springer). He holds degrees in analytical chemistry and in chemical engineering from the University of Pretoria, and is a registered professional engineer in Alberta.





James H. Gary was born in 1918 and lived 93 years. He graduated from Virginia Polytechnic Institute in 1942, served in the army in New Guinea during World War II, married in 1945 upon his return to the states, and obtained a Master of Science degree from Virginia Polytechnic Institute, where he learned to like teaching as a teaching assistant. He took a job with Standard Oil of Ohio in Cleveland so he could study for his doctorate at night, and completed his PhD at University of Florida before returning to Standard Oil of Ohio for two years. Jim was an Assistant Professor at University of Virginia from 1952-1956, and an Associate Professor at University of Alabama from 1956-1960. In 1960, Dr. Gary came to the Colorado School of Mines as Professor and Department Head of Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining, a position he held until 1972. In 1972, Dr. Gary served as Vice President for Academic Affairs, and in 1979 returned to the department and taught until his retirement in 1986. Jim was principal investigator for research projects on nitrogen and sulfur removal from liquid hydrocarbons and processing of heavy oils, and also organized the Colorado School of Mines Annual Oil Shale Symposium. Gary wrote several dozen publications in technical journals and held many patents in fuels and fuels processing. Jim consulted for refining companies and regularly taught a popular short course on petroleum refining. Jim was an inspiration to his many students and colleagues over the years.





Glenn E. Handwerk graduated from Lehigh University in 1948 with a degree in Chemical Engineering. His first job was with Gulf Oil working in gas processing plants in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Hobbs, New Mexico. After four years he went on to a position with Blawknox in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and then to Stearns-Rogers in Denver, Colorado, working in process design. He worked on numerous gas plants and refineries in both Canada and the U.S., and became Chief Process Engineer for Stearns by the mid-1960s. In 1967, Glenn left Stearns-Rogers to become a consultant in gas processing and refining, and became widely known and respected in the industry. He had many clients over the years, including Dome Petroleum, Colorado Interstate Gas, Pacific Petroleum and Western Gas Resources. Glenn was an active member of the Gas Producers Association and organized the Annual Gas Conditioning Conference. Glenn taught short courses at the Colorado School of Mines and he continued his work until he was almost 80.