Physics of Polymer Gels

Takamasa Sakai (Redaktør)

Explains the correlation between the physical properties and structure of polymer gels



This book elucidates in detail the physics of polymer gels and reviews their unique properties that make them attractive for innumerable applications. Les mer
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Explains the correlation between the physical properties and structure of polymer gels



This book elucidates in detail the physics of polymer gels and reviews their unique properties that make them attractive for innumerable applications. Geared towards experienced researchers and entrants to the field, it covers rubber elasticity, swelling and shrinking, deformation and fracture of as well as mass transport in polymer gels, enabling the readers to purposefully design polymer gels fit for specific purposes.



Divided into two parts, Physics of Polymer Gels starts by explaining the statistical mechanics and scaling of a polymer chains, and that of polymer solutions. It then introduces the structure of polymer gels and explains the rubber elasticity, which predicts the solid-like nature of polymer gels. Next, it describes swelling/deswelling, which can be understood by combining the rubber elasticity and the osmotic pressure of a polymer solution. Large deformation and fracture, and the diffusion of substances in polymer gels, which are essential for practical applications, are also introduced. The last half of the book contains the authors' experimental results using Tetra-PEG gels and provides readers with the opportunity to examine and compare it with the first half in order to understand how to utilize the models to experiments. This title:



* Is the first book dedicated to the physics of polymer gels

* Describes in detail the properties of polymer gels and their underlying physics, facilitating the development of novel, polymer gel-based applications

* Serves as a reference for all relevant polymer gel properties and their underlying physics

* Provides a unified treatment of the subject, explaining the physical properties of polymer gels within a common nomenclature framework

Physics of Polymer Gels is a must-have book for experienced researchers, such as polymer chemists, materials scientists, organic chemists, physical chemists, and solid-state physicists, as well as for newcomers to the field.

Fakta

Innholdsfortegnelse

Preface xi


Acknowledgements xiii


Part I Theories 1


1 Single Polymer Chain 3
Takamasa Sakai


1.1 General Features 3


1.1.1 Conformation of a Polymer Chain 3


1.1.2 Coarse-Graining of a Polymer Chain 4


1.1.3 Free Rotation Model 5


1.2 Statistics of a Single Polymer Chain 7


1.2.1 End-to-End Distance of a 1D Random Walk 7


1.2.2 End-to-End Distance of a 3D Random Walk 10


1.2.3 Force Needed to Stretch an Ideal Chain 12


1.3 Scaling of a Single Polymer Chain 15


1.3.1 Stretching of an Ideal Chain 17


1.3.2 Real Chains 18


1.3.3 Stretching of a Real Chain 19


Column 1: Miscible Gels and Immiscible Gels 21


References 22


2 Polymer Solution 23
Takamasa Sakai


2.1 Polymer Chains in Solution 23


2.1.1 Chain Swelling in a Good Solvent 23


2.1.2 Existing Conditions of an Ideal Chain and a Real Chain 25


2.2 Effect of Concentration on the Polymer Conformation 26


2.2.1 Overlapping Concentration 26


2.2.2 Semidilute Solution 28


2.2.3 Blobs in Semidilute Solution 29


2.3 Osmotic Pressure of a Polymer Solution 32


2.3.1 Entropy Change in Mixing 33


2.3.3 Basic Equation of Osmotic Pressure 36


2.3.4 Phase Separation of the Polymer Solution 37


2.3.5 Scaling of Osmotic Pressure 40


Column 2: Blob Size of a Polymer Gel 42


References 43


3 Definition of Polymer Gels and Rubber Elasticity 45
Takamasa Sakai


3.1 Elasticity of Gels 45


3.2 Definition of Polymer Gels 46


3.2.1 Criterion for Gelation by Rheology 47


3.2.2 Criterion for Gelation by Scattering 48


3.3 Mesh Size of a Polymer Gel 49


3.4 Elastic Modulus 51


3.4.1 Affine Network Model 51


3.4.2 Phantom Network Model 54


3.5 Network Strands and Crosslinks 60


3.5.1 Percolate Network Model 62


3.5.2 Bethe Approximation 63


3.6 Topological Interaction 67


3.7 Sol-Gel Transition 69


3.7.1 Gelation Threshold of Bethe Approximation 69


3.7.2 Gelation Threshold from the Percolation Model 70


3.8 Heterogeneity of Polym

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