Women, Politics, and Power

A Global Perspective

; Melanie M. Hughes ; Tiffany D. Barnes

Women, Politics, and Power provides a clear and detailed introduction to women's political participation and representation across all branches of government and a wide range of countries and regions. Using broad statistical overviews and detailed case-study accounts, authors Pamela Paxton, Melanie M. Les mer
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På grunn av Brexit-tilpasninger og tiltak for å begrense covid-19 kan det dessverre oppstå forsinket levering.

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Women, Politics, and Power provides a clear and detailed introduction to women's political participation and representation across all branches of government and a wide range of countries and regions. Using broad statistical overviews and detailed case-study accounts, authors Pamela Paxton, Melanie M. Hughes, and Tiffany Barnes document both historical trends and the contemporary state of women's political strength across diverse countries. The text considers experiences of women from a range of marginalized groups, including racial, ethnic, and religious minorities; indigenous peoples; and those that face discrimination based on their sexual orientation and gender identity. Readers will learn about cultural, structural, political, and international influences on women's access to political power, about the old and new barriers women continue to face like violence, and about the difference women make once in political office. Dedicated chapters on six geographic regions highlight distinct influences and patterns in different parts of the world. There is simply no other book that offers such a thorough and multidisciplinary synthesis of research on women's political power around the world.



About the Authors

1. Introduction to Women in Politics
Arguments for Women's Representation in Politics
The Story of Mukhtar Mai: Village Council Justice
Wife Beating in Nigeria-de jure vs. de facto Law
Filibustering in Texas-A Woman Representative Holds Out
Justice Arguments for Women's Representation
Utility Arguments for Women's Representation
A Brief Overview of Women's Participation in Politics
Orienting Theories
The Dimensions of Power: An Example
Gender and Gender Stratification
Gender and Power Concepts: Patriarchy, Public Versus Private, and Intersectionality
Feminist Institutionalism
Overview of the Book

2. Women Struggle for the Vote: The History of Women's Suffrage
Social Movement Concepts
Suffrage in the United States
Women's Suffrage and the U.S. Constitution
Women and the Antislavery Movement: The Struggle Begins
The Leadership, Organization, and Tactics of the Early Suffrage Movement
"Ain't I a Woman?" By Sojourner Truth, 1851
The State Suffrage Movement: Why the West Was Best
Partnering With the Progressive Movement
Opposition to Women's Suffrage
Women Gain the Vote: The Events Leading to the Passage of the 19th Amendment
Suffrage Movements Outside the United States
Time Period
Movement Size, Composition, and Alliances
Goals and Ideology
Movement Opposition
Tactics and Level of Militancy
The International Women's Movement
Women's Suffrage After 1945
Women Exercising Their Vote
First Women Members of Parliament

3. Positions and Pathways: Women's Representation in Government
Government Structures and Positions of Power
Women Presidents and Prime Ministers
Paths to Power for Women National Leaders
Difficulties Faced by Women Leaders
Women in Cabinet Positions
Women in Parliaments
Milestones and Historical Trajectories
Women in Parliaments Today
Women in the Judiciary
Women in Local Governance

4. Intersectionality and Difference
Thinking Intersectionally
Slower and Lower: The Double and Triple Barriers faced by Women from Marginalized Groups
Lesbian, Bisexual and Queer Women
Transgender, Gender Non-Conforming, and Intersex
Indigenous Women
The Puzzle of Success: Complementary and Strategic Opportunities
The Puzzle of Transgender Women's Success
All the Women are White, All the Blacks are Men
When Identities Collide: The Rights and Representaiton of Immigrant and Indigenous Women
But Who Represents Us? Multiple Marginalization and Substantive Representation
Out in the Open: "Out" Candidates and Public Officials
Who Is Indigenous

5. Explaining the Political Representation of Women-Culture
A Woman's Place in History: Women in Political Philosophy
A Woman's Place Today: The Continuing Power of Culture
Regional Differences
Cultural Attitudes
Culture and Women's Representation in Politics
Role Model Effects

6. Explaining the Political Representation of Women-Social Structure
Economic Development
Civic and Political Skills
Beyond Meritocracy
Violence Against Women in Politics

7. Explaining the Political Representation of Women-Politics
Selection Mechanisms
Electoral Systems
Why Are Proportional Representation Systems Good for Women?
Types of Political Representation Systems
Are the Same Systems and Rules Good for All Women?
Political Appointments
Characteristics of Political Parties
From Candidate to Legislator
What Kinds of Quotas Are There and Which Are Better?
Threshold for Representation
Candidate Quotas, Political Party Quotas, and Reserved Seats
Quotas, Looking Beyond Gender
!SOY JUANA, no "Juanita"!: Quota Reform in Mexico
Looking Beyond National Legislatures
The Adoption of Gender Quotas
Do Quotas affect Candidate Quality? Can Quotas Disrupt Men's Power?

8. Explaining the Political Representation of Women-International Factors
The International Women's Movement
A Brief History of Women's Activism in the United Nations
Women's Activism Increases the Supply and Demand of Women in Politics
Foreign Aid and Women's Representation
The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
Armed Conflict and Women's Access to Power

9. Do Women Make a Difference?
Thinking Differently: Women's Views on Women and Their Policy Priorities
Acting Differently: Women's Voting Patterns and Bill Sponsorship
Acting Successfully: Women's Legislative Effectiveness
Legislating Differently: Women's Legislative Style
Do Numbers Matter?
Women's Movements and Women's Policy Machinery as Alternative Sources of Influence
Winning Hearts and Minds: Symbolic Representation

10. Regions: The West and the United States
The Geography of Women in Politics
Western Industrialized Countries
Success Stories: Early Nordic Growth, Parity, and Imbalanced Cabinets
Backlash: Harassment, Violence, and the Murder of Jo Cox
Women in the European Union
Middle of the Pack: The United States
Women in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives: Growing Slowly
Women in the States
Women in the State Legislature
Women Governors
Women and the American Presidency
I Just Don't Think She has a Presidential Look
Explanations-Structure (Eligibility)
Gender Gaps in American Politics
Party Affiliation
Voter Turnout
Campaign Activities

11. Eastern Europe and Central Asia
The Fall of the Soviet Union: Women Fall Too
Variation in Recovery
Explaining Women's Political Power Since 1990
Eastern and Central Europe and the European Union
Populism and the Far-Right Bring Backslides

12. Latin America and the Caribbean
Legacies of Culture in Latin America
Democratization and Women's Political Empowerment
Women's Participation in Guerrilla Warfare and Revolutionary Movements
Women's Participation in Protest Movements
Women's Current Activism
Participation to Representation?
Gender Quotas
Setbacks and Challenges for Women in Politics

13. Middle East and North Africa
An Overview and Brief History of the Region
What Explains Women's Underrepresentation?
Changes Come to Women of the Gulf Region
Wins for Women in Bahrain
Women's Rights Stall in Kuwait
Forces for Change in the Region
Gender Quotas: A Look at Early Adopters
Raising Awareness about Women's Political Underrepresentation in Turkey
Women and the Arab Spring
After the Arab Spring

14. Asia and the Pacific
Cultural Obstacles
Honor Culture
Women Voters (Not) Supporting Women
Structural Obstacles
Industrialization and Work
Violence Against Women
Family Ties
Clientelism and Corruption
Political Obstacles
Local Gender Quotas in India: Women in the Panchayat Raj
Women in Afghanistan

15. Sub-Saharan Africa
One-Party Rule, Democracy, and Democratization
Women, Ethnicity, and Ethnic Politics
Gender and Ethnic Quotas in Burundi
Increasing the Supply of Women Candidates
Changing Culture
Changing Politics
Continuing Challenges

16. Where Do We Go From Here? And How Do We Get There?
Where Are We Now?
Where Are We Going?
How Do We Get There?
Furthering Women's Position in the Social Structure
Influencing Culture
Disrupting Politics as Usual
In Conclusion: What Would a 50/50 World Look Like?


Om forfatteren

Pamela Paxton is the Linda K. George and John Wilson Professor of Sociology at The University of Texas at Austin. PhD in sociology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She has consulted for the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the National Academies. She has intersecting research interests in prosocial behavior, politics, gender, and methodology. She is the author of articles and books on women in politics, nonprofits, and quantitative methodology.

Melanie M. Hughes is Professor of Sociology, has a secondary appointment in the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, and is Co-Director of the Gender Inequality Research Lab (GIRL) at the University of Pittsburgh. PhD in Sociology from The Ohio State University. Her research considers how gender intersects with other forces of marginalization to influence women's political power. She has published numerous articles on women's legislative representation cross-nationally in journals such as American Political Science Review, American Sociological Review, European Journal of Political Research, and Politics & Gender. Currently, she is consulting the United Nations Development Programme to increase the availability of data on women in decision-making positions in public administration. She is also writing a book on the political dominance of men from majority racial, ethnic, and religious groups worldwide.

Tiffany D. Barnes is an Associate Professor of Political Science at University of Kentucky and affiliated faculty with Gender and Women's Studies and Latin American, Caribbean, and Latino Studies. PhD in political science from Rice University. Her research focuses on Latin America, gender and politics, and comparative political institutions. Her book, Gendering Legislative Behavior, (Cambridge University Press 2016) won the Alan Rosenthal Prize from the Legislative Studies Section of the American Political Science Association (APSA) in 2017. Her other research appears in journals such as the American Journal of Political Science, Journal of Politics, Comparative Political Studies, Political Research Quarterly, Politics & Gender, and Politics, Groups, and Identities. She was awarded the Emerging Scholar Award from the Legislative Studies Section of the APSA and the Early Career Award from the Midwest Women's Caucus for Political Science. She formerly served as the president for the Midwest Women's' Caucus. She is an associate editor at Research & Politics, the editor of The Legislative Scholar, the newsletter for the Legislative Studies Section of the APSA, and on the editorial boards of The Journal of Politics, and Political Research Quarterly.