An Introduction to Minerals, Rocks, and Mineral Deposits

; Hartwig E. Frimmel

This book presents a translation and update of the classic German textbook of Mineralogy and Petrology that has been published for decades. It provides an introduction to mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry, discussing the principles of mineralogy, including crystallography, chemical bonding, and physical properties, and the genesis of minerals in a didactic and understandable way. Les mer
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This book presents a translation and update of the classic German textbook of Mineralogy and Petrology that has been published for decades. It provides an introduction to mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry, discussing the principles of mineralogy, including crystallography, chemical bonding, and physical properties, and the genesis of minerals in a didactic and understandable way. Illustrated with numerous figures and tables, it also features several sections dedicated to the genesis of mineral resources. The textbook reflects the authors' many years of experience and is ideal for use in lectures on mineralogy and petrology.



Part I Introduction and basic concepts

1 Crystals

1.1 Crystal morphology

1.1.1 Symmetry operations and symmetry elements

1.1.2 Crystal systems and classes

1.1.3 The Law of rational indices

1.2 Crystal structure

1.2.1 Bravais lattices

2.2.2 Space groups

2.2.3 Determination of crystal structures by X-ray diffraction

1.3 Crystal chemistry

1.3.1 Basic concepts

1.3.2 Types of chemical bonds

1.3.3 Some important terms of crystal chemistry

1.4. Physical properties of crystals

1.4.1 Hardness and cohesion

1.4.2 Thermal conductivity

1.4.3 Electric properties

1.4.4 Magnetic properties

1.5 Optical crystallography

1.5.1 Basic bonds

1.5.2 Basic principles of microscopy in transmitted light

1.5.3 Basic principles of microscopy reflected light


2 Minerals

2.1 Definition of the term mineral

2.2 Identification and classification of minerals

2.3 Mode of occurrence

2.4 Rock-forming and economic minerals

2.4.1 Rock-forming minerals

2.4.2 Economic minerals

2.4.3 Gemstones

2.5 Biomineralisation and medical mineralogy

2.5.1 Biogenic mineral formation

2.5.2 Medical mineralogy


3 Rocks

3.1 Mineralogical composition of rocks

3.2 Relationships between lithogeochemistry and mineralogy

3.3 Rock fabric

3.3.1 Texture (microstructure)

3.3.2 Structure

3.4 Field relationships

3.5 Principal rock-forming processes

3.6 Mineral deposits


Part II

Systematic mineralogy - a selection of important minerals

4. Elements

4.1 Metals

4.2 Metalloids (semi-metals)

4.3 Non-metals


5 Sulfides, arsenides and complex sulfides (sulfosalts)

5.1 Metal su^ 1:1 (generally 2:1)

5.2 Metal sulfides and arsenites with M:S = 1:1

5.3 Metal sulfides, sulfarsenides and arsenites with M:S 1:2

5.4 Arsenic sulfides

5.5 Complex metal sulfides (sulfosalts)


6 Halides


7 Oxides and hydroxides

7.1 M2O compounds

7.2 M3O4 compounds

7.3 M2O3 compounds

7.4 MO2 compounds

7.5 Hydroxides


8 Carbonates, nitrates, borates

8.1 Calcite group 32/m

8.2 Aragonite group 2/m2/m2/m

8.3 Dolomite group

8.4 Azurite-malachite group

8.5 Nitrates

8.6 Borates


9 Sulfates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates

9.1 Sulfates

9.2 Chromates

9.3 Molybdates and wolframates


10 Phosphates, arsenates, vanadates


11 Silicates

11.1 Orthosilicates (nesosilicates)

11.2 Disilicates (sorosilicates)

11.3 Ring silicates (cyclosilicates)

11.4 Chain silicates (inosilicates)

11.4.1 Pyroxenes

11.4.2 Pyroxenoids

11.4.3 Amphiboles

11.5 Sheet silicates (phyllosilicates)

11.5.1 Pyrophyllite-talc group

11.5.2 Mica group

11.5.3 Hydro-mica group

11.5.4 Brittle mica group

11.5.5 Chlorite series

11.5.6 Serpentine group

11.5.7 Clay minerals

11.5.8 Apophyllite group

11.6 Framework silicates

11.6.1 SiO2 minerals

11.6.2 Feldspar family

11.6.3 Feldspathoids

11.6.4 Cancrinite group

11.6.5 Scapolite group

11.6.6 Zeolite family


12 Fluid inclusions in minerals


Part III

Petrology and metallogenesis

13. Igneous rocks

13.1. Classification of igneous rocks

13.1.1 Principal classification based on geological position and fabric

13.1.2 Classification based on mineralogy

13.1.3 Classification based on bulk chemical composition

13.2 Petrography of igneous rocks

13.2.1 Subalkaline magmatic rocks

13.2.2 Alkaline magmatic rocks

13.2.3 Carbonatite, kimberlite and lamproite


14 Volcanism

14.1 Effusive volcanism: lava flows

14.2 Extrusive volcanism

14.3 Explosive volcanism

14.4 Mixed volcanic activity: stratovolcanoes

14.5 Volcanic exhalations


15 Plutonism

15.1 Volcanic roots and magma chambers

15.2 Shapes of plutonic and subvolcanic intrusive bodies

15.3 Internal structure and emplacement of intrusive bodies

15.3.1 Internal structure of plutons

15.3.2 Emplacement mechanisms

15.3.3 Layered intrusions


16 Magma and lava

16.1 Chemical composition and structure of magma

16.2 Volcanic gases

16.3 Temperatures of magmat

16.3.1 Direct measurement by pyrometry

16.3.2 Melting experiments on natural rocks

16.4 Viscosity of magmas and lavas

16.5 Solubility of volatiles in magma


17 Formation and evolution of magmas

17.1 Magma series

17.2 Primary and parental melts

17.2.1 Primary basaltic melts

17.2.2 Granitic melts

17.3 Magma mixing

17.4 Magmatic differentiation

17.4.1 Fractional crystallisation

17.4.2 Liquid immiscibility

17.5 Assimilation


18 Experiments in simplified model systems

18.1 The Gibbs' Phase Rule

18.2 Experiments in binary and ternary systems

18.2.1 Experiments modelling the fractional crystallisation of basaltic magmas

18.2.2 Experiments modelling the formation of SiO2-oversaturated and undersaturated

18.2.3 Experiments on the phase relations of mafic minerals in basaltic melts

18.3 Bowens's Reaction Series

18.4 The basalt tetrahedron of Yoder and Tilley (1962)

18.5 Equilibrium melting and fractionated melting


19 The origin of basalt

19.1 Basalt types and plate tectonics

19.2 Formation of basaltic melts by partial melting of peridotite in Earth's upper mantle

19.2.1 The pyrolite model

19.2.2 Partial melting of H2O-free pyrolite

19.2.3 Partial melting of H2O-bearing pyrolite


20 The origin of granite

20.1 Petrogenetic classification of granitoids based on their chemical composition

20.2 Experiments on the petrogenesis of granite

20.2.1 Introduction

20.2.2 Crystallisation sequence in granitic melts: Experiments on the H2O-saturated
model system Qz-Ab-Or-H2O

20.3.3 Experimental anatexis: Experiments under H2O saturated and H2O-
undersaturated conditions in the model system Qz-Ab-Or-H2O(-CO2)

20.2.4 The model system Qz-Ab-An-Or-H2O

20.2.5 The model system Qz-Ab-An-H2O

20.2.6 The natural granite system


21 Orthomagmatic mineral deposits

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Mineralisation due to fractional crystallisation

21.2.1 Chromite and chromite-PGE deposits

21.2.2 Fe-Ti oxide deposits

21.3 Mineralisation due to liquid immiscibility

21.3.1 pyrrhotite-pentlandite-chalcopyrite-PGE deposits in norites and pyroxenites

21.3.2 pyrrhotite- pentlandite-chalcopyrite deposits in komatiites

21.3.3 Magnetite-apatite deposits

21.4 Carbonatite- and alkaline-magmatic rock-hosted mineralisations


22 Pegmatites

22.1 Theoretical considerations

22.2 Field relations, petrography and petrogenesis of pegmatites

22.3 Pegmatites as sources of economic minerals

22.4 Geochemical classification of granitic pegmatites

23 Hydrothermal mineral deposits

23.1 Basic principles

23.2 Hydrothermal impregnation deposits

23.2.1 Granite-related Sn-W deposits

23.3.2 Porphyry Cu- (Mo-, Au-) deposits

23.3.3 Impregnations with native copper (Lake Superior type)

23.3 Hydrothermal replacement deposits

23.3.1 Skarn deposits

23.3.2 Mesothermal Cu-As replacement deposits

23.3.3 Hydrothermal Pb-Ag-Zn replacement deposits

23.3.4 Hyrothermal gold-pyrite replacement deposits (Carlin type)

23.3.5 Metasomatic siderite deposits

23.4 Hydrothermal vein-type deposits

23.4.1 Orogenic gold-quartz veins

23.4.2 Epithermal Au- and Au-Ag veins (subvolcanic)

23.4.3 Mesothermal Cu ore veins

23.4.4 Pb-Ag-Zn ore veins

23.4.5 Sn-Ag-Bi ore veins in the Bolivian tin belt

23.4.6 Veins of Bi-Co-Ni-Ag-U ore

23.4.7 Telethermal stibnite-quartz veins

23.4.8 Hydrothermal siderite and haematite veins

23.4.9 Non-metallic hydrothermal veins

23.4.10 Quartz veins

23.4.11 Mineralisation in late-orogenic tension joints

23.5 Volcanogenic-sedimentary ore deposits

23.5.1 Ore formation by hydrothermal activity in the deep sea: Black smokers

23.5.2 Volcanic hosted massive sulfide-ore deposits (VMS deposits)

23.5.3 Volcanogenic massive Hg deposits

23.5.4 Magmatogenic oxide-ore deposits

23.6 Non-magmatic stratabound hydrothermal deposits

23.6.1 Sedimentary exhalative Pb-Zn deposits (SEDEX deposits)

23.6.2 Carbonate-hosted ore deposits (MVT)

23.7 Unconformity-related uranium deposits


24. Weathering and mineral formation in soils

24.1 Mechanical weathering

24.2 Chemical weathering

24.2.1 Highly soluble minerals

24.2.2 Silicate weathering

24.3 Subaerial weathering and climate zones

24.4 On the definition of the term soil

24.5 Weathering of silicate rocks and related deposits

24.5.1 Residual clay and other kaolin deposits

24.5.2 Bentonite

24.5.3 Bauxite

24.5.4 Fe-, Mn- and Co-rich laterite

24.5.5 Ni- and Co-rich laterite

24.5.6 Other residual deposits

24.6 Weathering of sulfidic ore bodies

24.6.1 Oxidation zone

24.6.2 Cementation zone

24.6.3 Stability of important secondary copper minerals

25. Sediments and sedimentary rocks

25.1 Basic principles

25.1.1 Classification of sediments and sedimentary rocks

25.1.2 Structures of sediments and sedimentary rocks

25.2 Clastic sediments and sedimentary rocks

25.2.1 Transport and deposition of clastic materials

25.2.2 Chemical alteration during sediment transport

25.2.3 Grain-size distribution of clastic sediments

25.3.4 Diagenesis of clastic sediments

25.2.5 Classification of rudites and arenites

25.2.6 Heavy minerals in arenites

25.2.7 Fluvial and marine placer deposits

25.2.8 Red bed deposits

25.2.9 Classification of argillites

25.2.10 Diagenesis of argillites

25.2.11 Base-metal deposits in black shales

25.2.12 Transition from diagenesis to low-grade metamorphism

25.3 Chemical and biochemical sediments and sedimentary rocks

25.3.1 Classification of sedimentary carbonate rocks

25.3.2 Solubility and precipitation conditions of carbonates

25.3.3 Anorganic and biochemical carbonate precipitation in sea water

25.3.4 Formation of terrestrial carbonate rocks

25.3.5 Diagenesis of limestone

25.3.6 Diagenetic magnesite deposits

25.4 Iron- and manganese-rich sediments and sedimentary rocks

25.4.1 Stability field of Fe-minerals

25.4.2 Sedimentary iron ores

25.4.3 Sedimentary manganese ores

25.4.4 Metal concentrations on the ocean floor

25.5 Siliceous sediments and sedimentary rocks

25.6 Sedimentary phosphate rocks

25.7 Evaporites

25.7.1 Continental (terrestrial) evaporites

25.7.2 Marine evaporites

26. Metamorphic rocks

26.1 Basic principles

26.1.1 Metamorphic processes

26.1.2 Protoliths of metamorphic rocks

26.1.3 Lower and upper temperature boundaries of metamorphism

26.1.4 The driving forces of metamorphism

26.2 Metamorphism as a geological process

26.2.1 Contact metamorphism

26.2.2 Cataclastic metamorphism and mylonitisation

26.2.3 Impact or shock metamorphism

26.2.4 Hydrothermal metamorphism

26.2.5 Regional metamorphism in orogens

26.2.6 Burial metamorphism

26.2.7 Ocean-floor metamorphism

26.3 Nomenclature of regional and contact metamorphic rocks

26.3.1 Regional metamorphic rocks

26.3.2 Contact metamorphic rocks

26.4 Structure and texture of metamorphic rocks

26.4.1 Remnants of protolith-structures

26.4.2 Metamorphic textures

26.4.3 Strain-induced preferred orientation of metamorphic minerals

26.5. Formation of migmatites by anatexis

26.5.1 Definition of the term migmatite

26.5.2 Experimental evidence of migmatite formation by partial melting

26.5.3 Mass balance in migmatites

26.5.4 The global geodynamic relevance of anatexis

26.6 Metasomatism

26.6.1 Contact metasomatism

26.6.2 Autometasomatism

26.2.3 Spilites as product of hydrothermal metamorphism and sodium metasomatism


27. Phase relations and mineral reactions in metamorphic rocks

27.1 Mineral equilibria in metamorphic rocks

27.1.1 Assessment of chemical equilibrium

27.1.2 Application of the Gibbs Phase Rule

27.1.3 Gibbs free energy: stable and metastable equilibria

27.2 Metamorphic mineral reactions

27.2.1 Polymorphic transformations and solid-solid reactions

27.2.2 Dehydration reactions

27.2.3 Decarbonation reactions

27.2.4 Reactions involving both H2O and CO2

27.2.5 Redox reactions

27.2.6 Petrogenetic grids

27.3 Geothermometry and geobarometry

27.4 Pressure-temperature evolution of metamorphic complexes

27.4.1 Pressure-temperature paths

27.4.2 Pressure-temperature-time paths

27.5 Graphical presentation of metamorphic mineral assemblages

27.5.1 ACF and A'KF diagrams

27.5.2 AFM projections


28 Metamorphic facies and facies series

28.1 Principles of metamorphic facies

28.2 Metamorphic facies series

28.3 Mineralogical characteristics of individual metamorphic facies

28.3.1 Zeolite and prehnite-pumpellyite facies

28.3.2 Greenschist facies

28.3.3 Epidote-amphibolite facies

28.3.4 Amphibolite facies

28.3.5 Granulite facies

28.3.6 Hornfels facies

28.3.7 Sanidinite facies

28.3.8 Blueschist facies

28.3.9 Eclogite facies


Part IV

Our planetary system

29 Earth's interior

29.1 Seismic evidence of the whole-Earth structure

29.1.1 Physical background

29.1.2 Propagation of seismic waves through Earth's interior

29.1.3 Velocity distribution of seismic waves in Earth's interior

29.2 The crust

29.2.1 Oceanic crust

29.2.2 Continental crust

29.2.3 The crust in orogenic belts

29.3 The mantle

29.3.1 The uppermost lithospheric mantle and the nature of the Moho

29.3.2 The asthenosphere as conveyor belt of lithosperic plates

29.3.3 The transitional zone between upper and lower mantle

29.3.4 The lower mantle

29.4 The core

29.4.1 Seismic evidence

29.4.2 Chemical composition of the core


30. Lunar rocks and the Moon's interior

30.1 The lunar crust

30.1.1 Lunar highlands

30.1.2 Maria

30.1.3 Minerals in lunar rocks

30.1.4 Lunar regolith

30.1.5 Relics of water in the lunar regolith

30.2 Moon's internal layering

30.2.1 Lunar crust

30.2.2 Lunar mantle

30.2.3 Lunar core

30.3 Geological history of the Moon


31. Meteorites

31.1 Fall phenomena

31.2 Frequency of falls and finds

31.3 Classification of meteorites derived from the asteroid belt

31.3.1 Undifferentiated stony meteorites: Chondrites

31.3.2 Achondrites derived from the asteroid belt

31.3.3 Stony iron meteorites (differentiated)

31.3.4 Iron meteorites (differentiated)

31.4 Planetary meteorites

31.4.1 Martian meteorites: The SNC group of achondrites

31.4.2 Lunar meteorites: Lunaites

31.5 Tektites


32 The planets, their satellites and smaller planetary bodies

32.1 The terrestrial planets

32.1.1 Mercury

32.1.2 Venus

32.1.3 Mars

32.2 Asteroids

32.3 The giant planets and their satellites

32.3.1 Astronomical exploration

32.3.2 Atmosphere and interior of the giant planets

32.3.3 The moons of Jupiter

32.3.4 The icy moons of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune

32.3.5 The ring systems of the giant planets

32.4 The trans-Neptun objects (TNO) in the Kuiper belt

32.5 The dwarf planet Pluto and its moon Charon: A double planet


33. Introduction to geochemistry

33.1 Geochemical classification of the elements

33.2 Chemical composition of the bulk Earth

33.3 Chemical composition of the Earth's crust

33.3.1 Calculation of the mean crustal composition: Clarke values

33.3.2 Rare elements and their Clarke values

33.4. Trace-element partitioning and magmatic processes

33.4.1 Basic concepts

33.4.2 Trace-element fractionation during formation and differentiation of magmas

33.4.3 Trace elements as indicators of the geotectonic setting of magmatic processes

33.5 Isotope geochemistry

33.5.1 Introduction

33.5.2 Stable isotopes

33.5.3 Radiogenic isotopes in geochronology

33.6 The formation of the chemical elements


34. The genesis of our solar system

34.1 Earlier theories

34.2 Formation of stars

34.3 Composition of the solar nebula

34.4 Formation of planets


A Appendix

A.1 Important ionic radii and the coordination of cations against O2-

A.2 Calculation of mineral formulae

I Index

Subject index

Geographical index

Om forfatteren

Martin Okrusch was born in 1934 in Guben, Germany, and studied Geosciences at the Free University of Berlin and the University of Wurzburg, Bavaria. After having obtained his doctoral degree in 1961 and his Dr. rer. nat. habil. in 1968, he worked as a guest researcher at the University of California at Berkeley in 1968/1969 and became an associate professor at the University of Cologne in 1970. He was a full professor at the Technical University of Braunschweig from 1972 to 1982, and at the University of Wurzburg from 1982 until his retirement in 2000. Since then he has continued to work on research projects in metamorphic and igneous petrology.

Hartwig Frimmel, born in 1960 in Linz, Austria, received his PhD in Geology and Petrology from the University of Vienna in 1987. Since 2004 he has been a full professor at the University of Wurzburg, Bavaria, where he holds the Chair in Geodynamics and Geomaterials Research. He is an honorary research associate at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, where he rose from lecturer to associate professor between 1989 and 2004. From 1998 to 2004 he was the leader of the Earth Science subprogramme of the South African National Antarctic Programme. He is a former president of the Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA) and advisor at the national and European level on matters concerning mineral deposits. His main research interests range from economic geology, metamorphic petrology, Precambrian palaeoclimate and palaeogeography, to sedimentary geochemistry and the role of early life in metallogenesis.