Mineralogy

An Introduction to Minerals, Rocks, and Mineral Deposits

; Hartwig E. Frimmel

This book presents a translation and update of the classic German textbook of Mineralogy and Petrology that has been published for decades. It provides an introduction to mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry, discussing the principles of mineralogy, including crystallography, chemical bonding, and physical properties, and the genesis of minerals in a didactic and understandable way. Les mer
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Om boka

This book presents a translation and update of the classic German textbook of Mineralogy and Petrology that has been published for decades. It provides an introduction to mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry, discussing the principles of mineralogy, including crystallography, chemical bonding, and physical properties, and the genesis of minerals in a didactic and understandable way. Illustrated with numerous figures and tables, it also features several sections dedicated to the genesis of mineral resources. The textbook reflects the authors' many years of experience and is ideal for use in lectures on mineralogy and petrology.

Fakta

Innholdsfortegnelse

Part I Introduction and basic concepts







1 Crystals



1.1 Crystal morphology



1.1.1 Symmetry operations and symmetry elements



1.1.2 Crystal systems and classes



1.1.3 The Law of rational indices



1.2 Crystal structure



1.2.1 Bravais lattices



2.2.2 Space groups



2.2.3 Determination of crystal structures by X-ray diffraction



1.3 Crystal chemistry



1.3.1 Basic concepts



1.3.2 Types of chemical bonds



1.3.3 Some important terms of crystal chemistry



1.4. Physical properties of crystals



1.4.1 Hardness and cohesion



1.4.2 Thermal conductivity



1.4.3 Electric properties



1.4.4 Magnetic properties



1.5 Optical crystallography



1.5.1 Basic bonds



1.5.2 Basic principles of microscopy in transmitted light



1.5.3 Basic principles of microscopy reflected light



References







2 Minerals



2.1 Definition of the term mineral



2.2 Identification and classification of minerals



2.3 Mode of occurrence



2.4 Rock-forming and economic minerals



2.4.1 Rock-forming minerals



2.4.2 Economic minerals



2.4.3 Gemstones



2.5 Biomineralisation and medical mineralogy



2.5.1 Biogenic mineral formation



2.5.2 Medical mineralogy



References







3 Rocks



3.1 Mineralogical composition of rocks



3.2 Relationships between lithogeochemistry and mineralogy



3.3 Rock fabric



3.3.1 Texture (microstructure)



3.3.2 Structure



3.4 Field relationships



3.5 Principal rock-forming processes



3.6 Mineral deposits



References







Part II



Systematic mineralogy - a selection of important minerals







4. Elements



4.1 Metals



4.2 Metalloids (semi-metals)



4.3 Non-metals



References







5 Sulfides, arsenides and complex sulfides (sulfosalts)



5.1 Metal su^ 1:1 (generally 2:1)



5.2 Metal sulfides and arsenites with M:S = 1:1



5.3 Metal sulfides, sulfarsenides and arsenites with M:S 1:2



5.4 Arsenic sulfides



5.5 Complex metal sulfides (sulfosalts)



References







6 Halides



References







7 Oxides and hydroxides



7.1 M2O compounds



7.2 M3O4 compounds



7.3 M2O3 compounds



7.4 MO2 compounds



7.5 Hydroxides



References







8 Carbonates, nitrates, borates



8.1 Calcite group 32/m



8.2 Aragonite group 2/m2/m2/m



8.3 Dolomite group



8.4 Azurite-malachite group



8.5 Nitrates



8.6 Borates



References







9 Sulfates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates



9.1 Sulfates



9.2 Chromates



9.3 Molybdates and wolframates



References







10 Phosphates, arsenates, vanadates



References







11 Silicates



11.1 Orthosilicates (nesosilicates)



11.2 Disilicates (sorosilicates)



11.3 Ring silicates (cyclosilicates)



11.4 Chain silicates (inosilicates)



11.4.1 Pyroxenes



11.4.2 Pyroxenoids



11.4.3 Amphiboles



11.5 Sheet silicates (phyllosilicates)



11.5.1 Pyrophyllite-talc group



11.5.2 Mica group



11.5.3 Hydro-mica group



11.5.4 Brittle mica group



11.5.5 Chlorite series



11.5.6 Serpentine group



11.5.7 Clay minerals



11.5.8 Apophyllite group



11.6 Framework silicates



11.6.1 SiO2 minerals



11.6.2 Feldspar family



11.6.3 Feldspathoids



11.6.4 Cancrinite group



11.6.5 Scapolite group



11.6.6 Zeolite family



References







12 Fluid inclusions in minerals



References







Part III



Petrology and metallogenesis







13. Igneous rocks



13.1. Classification of igneous rocks



13.1.1 Principal classification based on geological position and fabric



13.1.2 Classification based on mineralogy



13.1.3 Classification based on bulk chemical composition



13.2 Petrography of igneous rocks



13.2.1 Subalkaline magmatic rocks



13.2.2 Alkaline magmatic rocks



13.2.3 Carbonatite, kimberlite and lamproite



References







14 Volcanism



14.1 Effusive volcanism: lava flows



14.2 Extrusive volcanism



14.3 Explosive volcanism



14.4 Mixed volcanic activity: stratovolcanoes



14.5 Volcanic exhalations



References







15 Plutonism



15.1 Volcanic roots and magma chambers



15.2 Shapes of plutonic and subvolcanic intrusive bodies



15.3 Internal structure and emplacement of intrusive bodies



15.3.1 Internal structure of plutons



15.3.2 Emplacement mechanisms



15.3.3 Layered intrusions



References







16 Magma and lava



16.1 Chemical composition and structure of magma



16.2 Volcanic gases



16.3 Temperatures of magmat



16.3.1 Direct measurement by pyrometry



16.3.2 Melting experiments on natural rocks



16.4 Viscosity of magmas and lavas



16.5 Solubility of volatiles in magma



References







17 Formation and evolution of magmas



17.1 Magma series



17.2 Primary and parental melts



17.2.1 Primary basaltic melts



17.2.2 Granitic melts



17.3 Magma mixing



17.4 Magmatic differentiation



17.4.1 Fractional crystallisation



17.4.2 Liquid immiscibility



17.5 Assimilation



References







18 Experiments in simplified model systems



18.1 The Gibbs' Phase Rule



18.2 Experiments in binary and ternary systems



18.2.1 Experiments modelling the fractional crystallisation of basaltic magmas



18.2.2 Experiments modelling the formation of SiO2-oversaturated and undersaturated
magmas



18.2.3 Experiments on the phase relations of mafic minerals in basaltic melts



18.3 Bowens's Reaction Series



18.4 The basalt tetrahedron of Yoder and Tilley (1962)



18.5 Equilibrium melting and fractionated melting



References







19 The origin of basalt



19.1 Basalt types and plate tectonics



19.2 Formation of basaltic melts by partial melting of peridotite in Earth's upper mantle



19.2.1 The pyrolite model



19.2.2 Partial melting of H2O-free pyrolite



19.2.3 Partial melting of H2O-bearing pyrolite



References







20 The origin of granite



20.1 Petrogenetic classification of granitoids based on their chemical composition



20.2 Experiments on the petrogenesis of granite



20.2.1 Introduction



20.2.2 Crystallisation sequence in granitic melts: Experiments on the H2O-saturated
model system Qz-Ab-Or-H2O



20.3.3 Experimental anatexis: Experiments under H2O saturated and H2O-
undersaturated conditions in the model system Qz-Ab-Or-H2O(-CO2)



20.2.4 The model system Qz-Ab-An-Or-H2O



20.2.5 The model system Qz-Ab-An-H2O



20.2.6 The natural granite system



References







21 Orthomagmatic mineral deposits



21.1 Introduction



21.2 Mineralisation due to fractional crystallisation



21.2.1 Chromite and chromite-PGE deposits



21.2.2 Fe-Ti oxide deposits



21.3 Mineralisation due to liquid immiscibility



21.3.1 pyrrhotite-pentlandite-chalcopyrite-PGE deposits in norites and pyroxenites



21.3.2 pyrrhotite- pentlandite-chalcopyrite deposits in komatiites



21.3.3 Magnetite-apatite deposits



21.4 Carbonatite- and alkaline-magmatic rock-hosted mineralisations



References







22 Pegmatites



22.1 Theoretical considerations



22.2 Field relations, petrography and petrogenesis of pegmatites



22.3 Pegmatites as sources of economic minerals



22.4 Geochemical classification of granitic pegmatites







23 Hydrothermal mineral deposits



23.1 Basic principles



23.2 Hydrothermal impregnation deposits



23.2.1 Granite-related Sn-W deposits



23.3.2 Porphyry Cu- (Mo-, Au-) deposits



23.3.3 Impregnations with native copper (Lake Superior type)



23.3 Hydrothermal replacement deposits



23.3.1 Skarn deposits



23.3.2 Mesothermal Cu-As replacement deposits



23.3.3 Hydrothermal Pb-Ag-Zn replacement deposits



23.3.4 Hyrothermal gold-pyrite replacement deposits (Carlin type)



23.3.5 Metasomatic siderite deposits



23.4 Hydrothermal vein-type deposits



23.4.1 Orogenic gold-quartz veins



23.4.2 Epithermal Au- and Au-Ag veins (subvolcanic)



23.4.3 Mesothermal Cu ore veins



23.4.4 Pb-Ag-Zn ore veins



23.4.5 Sn-Ag-Bi ore veins in the Bolivian tin belt



23.4.6 Veins of Bi-Co-Ni-Ag-U ore



23.4.7 Telethermal stibnite-quartz veins



23.4.8 Hydrothermal siderite and haematite veins



23.4.9 Non-metallic hydrothermal veins



23.4.10 Quartz veins



23.4.11 Mineralisation in late-orogenic tension joints



23.5 Volcanogenic-sedimentary ore deposits



23.5.1 Ore formation by hydrothermal activity in the deep sea: Black smokers



23.5.2 Volcanic hosted massive sulfide-ore deposits (VMS deposits)



23.5.3 Volcanogenic massive Hg deposits



23.5.4 Magmatogenic oxide-ore deposits



23.6 Non-magmatic stratabound hydrothermal deposits



23.6.1 Sedimentary exhalative Pb-Zn deposits (SEDEX deposits)



23.6.2 Carbonate-hosted ore deposits (MVT)



23.7 Unconformity-related uranium deposits



References







24. Weathering and mineral formation in soils



24.1 Mechanical weathering



24.2 Chemical weathering



24.2.1 Highly soluble minerals



24.2.2 Silicate weathering



24.3 Subaerial weathering and climate zones



24.4 On the definition of the term soil



24.5 Weathering of silicate rocks and related deposits



24.5.1 Residual clay and other kaolin deposits



24.5.2 Bentonite



24.5.3 Bauxite



24.5.4 Fe-, Mn- and Co-rich laterite



24.5.5 Ni- and Co-rich laterite



24.5.6 Other residual deposits



24.6 Weathering of sulfidic ore bodies



24.6.1 Oxidation zone



24.6.2 Cementation zone



24.6.3 Stability of important secondary copper minerals







25. Sediments and sedimentary rocks



25.1 Basic principles



25.1.1 Classification of sediments and sedimentary rocks



25.1.2 Structures of sediments and sedimentary rocks



25.2 Clastic sediments and sedimentary rocks



25.2.1 Transport and deposition of clastic materials



25.2.2 Chemical alteration during sediment transport



25.2.3 Grain-size distribution of clastic sediments



25.3.4 Diagenesis of clastic sediments



25.2.5 Classification of rudites and arenites



25.2.6 Heavy minerals in arenites



25.2.7 Fluvial and marine placer deposits



25.2.8 Red bed deposits



25.2.9 Classification of argillites



25.2.10 Diagenesis of argillites



25.2.11 Base-metal deposits in black shales



25.2.12 Transition from diagenesis to low-grade metamorphism



25.3 Chemical and biochemical sediments and sedimentary rocks



25.3.1 Classification of sedimentary carbonate rocks



25.3.2 Solubility and precipitation conditions of carbonates



25.3.3 Anorganic and biochemical carbonate precipitation in sea water



25.3.4 Formation of terrestrial carbonate rocks



25.3.5 Diagenesis of limestone



25.3.6 Diagenetic magnesite deposits



25.4 Iron- and manganese-rich sediments and sedimentary rocks



25.4.1 Stability field of Fe-minerals



25.4.2 Sedimentary iron ores



25.4.3 Sedimentary manganese ores



25.4.4 Metal concentrations on the ocean floor



25.5 Siliceous sediments and sedimentary rocks



25.6 Sedimentary phosphate rocks



25.7 Evaporites



25.7.1 Continental (terrestrial) evaporites



25.7.2 Marine evaporites







26. Metamorphic rocks



26.1 Basic principles



26.1.1 Metamorphic processes



26.1.2 Protoliths of metamorphic rocks



26.1.3 Lower and upper temperature boundaries of metamorphism



26.1.4 The driving forces of metamorphism



26.2 Metamorphism as a geological process



26.2.1 Contact metamorphism



26.2.2 Cataclastic metamorphism and mylonitisation



26.2.3 Impact or shock metamorphism



26.2.4 Hydrothermal metamorphism



26.2.5 Regional metamorphism in orogens



26.2.6 Burial metamorphism



26.2.7 Ocean-floor metamorphism



26.3 Nomenclature of regional and contact metamorphic rocks



26.3.1 Regional metamorphic rocks



26.3.2 Contact metamorphic rocks



26.4 Structure and texture of metamorphic rocks



26.4.1 Remnants of protolith-structures



26.4.2 Metamorphic textures



26.4.3 Strain-induced preferred orientation of metamorphic minerals



26.5. Formation of migmatites by anatexis



26.5.1 Definition of the term migmatite



26.5.2 Experimental evidence of migmatite formation by partial melting



26.5.3 Mass balance in migmatites



26.5.4 The global geodynamic relevance of anatexis



26.6 Metasomatism



26.6.1 Contact metasomatism



26.6.2 Autometasomatism



26.2.3 Spilites as product of hydrothermal metamorphism and sodium metasomatism



References







27. Phase relations and mineral reactions in metamorphic rocks



27.1 Mineral equilibria in metamorphic rocks



27.1.1 Assessment of chemical equilibrium



27.1.2 Application of the Gibbs Phase Rule



27.1.3 Gibbs free energy: stable and metastable equilibria



27.2 Metamorphic mineral reactions



27.2.1 Polymorphic transformations and solid-solid reactions



27.2.2 Dehydration reactions



27.2.3 Decarbonation reactions



27.2.4 Reactions involving both H2O and CO2



27.2.5 Redox reactions



27.2.6 Petrogenetic grids



27.3 Geothermometry and geobarometry



27.4 Pressure-temperature evolution of metamorphic complexes



27.4.1 Pressure-temperature paths



27.4.2 Pressure-temperature-time paths



27.5 Graphical presentation of metamorphic mineral assemblages



27.5.1 ACF and A'KF diagrams



27.5.2 AFM projections



References







28 Metamorphic facies and facies series



28.1 Principles of metamorphic facies



28.2 Metamorphic facies series



28.3 Mineralogical characteristics of individual metamorphic facies



28.3.1 Zeolite and prehnite-pumpellyite facies



28.3.2 Greenschist facies



28.3.3 Epidote-amphibolite facies



28.3.4 Amphibolite facies



28.3.5 Granulite facies



28.3.6 Hornfels facies



28.3.7 Sanidinite facies



28.3.8 Blueschist facies



28.3.9 Eclogite facies



References







Part IV



Our planetary system







29 Earth's interior



29.1 Seismic evidence of the whole-Earth structure



29.1.1 Physical background



29.1.2 Propagation of seismic waves through Earth's interior



29.1.3 Velocity distribution of seismic waves in Earth's interior



29.2 The crust



29.2.1 Oceanic crust



29.2.2 Continental crust



29.2.3 The crust in orogenic belts



29.3 The mantle



29.3.1 The uppermost lithospheric mantle and the nature of the Moho



29.3.2 The asthenosphere as conveyor belt of lithosperic plates



29.3.3 The transitional zone between upper and lower mantle



29.3.4 The lower mantle



29.4 The core



29.4.1 Seismic evidence



29.4.2 Chemical composition of the core



References







30. Lunar rocks and the Moon's interior



30.1 The lunar crust



30.1.1 Lunar highlands



30.1.2 Maria



30.1.3 Minerals in lunar rocks



30.1.4 Lunar regolith



30.1.5 Relics of water in the lunar regolith



30.2 Moon's internal layering



30.2.1 Lunar crust



30.2.2 Lunar mantle



30.2.3 Lunar core



30.3 Geological history of the Moon



References







31. Meteorites



31.1 Fall phenomena



31.2 Frequency of falls and finds



31.3 Classification of meteorites derived from the asteroid belt



31.3.1 Undifferentiated stony meteorites: Chondrites



31.3.2 Achondrites derived from the asteroid belt



31.3.3 Stony iron meteorites (differentiated)



31.3.4 Iron meteorites (differentiated)



31.4 Planetary meteorites



31.4.1 Martian meteorites: The SNC group of achondrites



31.4.2 Lunar meteorites: Lunaites



31.5 Tektites



References







32 The planets, their satellites and smaller planetary bodies



32.1 The terrestrial planets



32.1.1 Mercury



32.1.2 Venus



32.1.3 Mars



32.2 Asteroids



32.3 The giant planets and their satellites



32.3.1 Astronomical exploration



32.3.2 Atmosphere and interior of the giant planets



32.3.3 The moons of Jupiter



32.3.4 The icy moons of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune



32.3.5 The ring systems of the giant planets



32.4 The trans-Neptun objects (TNO) in the Kuiper belt



32.5 The dwarf planet Pluto and its moon Charon: A double planet



References







33. Introduction to geochemistry



33.1 Geochemical classification of the elements



33.2 Chemical composition of the bulk Earth



33.3 Chemical composition of the Earth's crust



33.3.1 Calculation of the mean crustal composition: Clarke values



33.3.2 Rare elements and their Clarke values



33.4. Trace-element partitioning and magmatic processes



33.4.1 Basic concepts



33.4.2 Trace-element fractionation during formation and differentiation of magmas



33.4.3 Trace elements as indicators of the geotectonic setting of magmatic processes



33.5 Isotope geochemistry



33.5.1 Introduction



33.5.2 Stable isotopes



33.5.3 Radiogenic isotopes in geochronology



33.6 The formation of the chemical elements



References







34. The genesis of our solar system



34.1 Earlier theories



34.2 Formation of stars



34.3 Composition of the solar nebula



34.4 Formation of planets



References







A Appendix



A.1 Important ionic radii and the coordination of cations against O2-



A.2 Calculation of mineral formulae







I Index



Subject index



Geographical index

Om forfatteren

Martin Okrusch was born in 1934 in Guben, Germany, and studied Geosciences at the Free University of Berlin and the University of Wurzburg, Bavaria. After having obtained his doctoral degree in 1961 and his Dr. rer. nat. habil. in 1968, he worked as a guest researcher at the University of California at Berkeley in 1968/1969 and became an associate professor at the University of Cologne in 1970. He was a full professor at the Technical University of Braunschweig from 1972 to 1982, and at the University of Wurzburg from 1982 until his retirement in 2000. Since then he has continued to work on research projects in metamorphic and igneous petrology.



Hartwig Frimmel, born in 1960 in Linz, Austria, received his PhD in Geology and Petrology from the University of Vienna in 1987. Since 2004 he has been a full professor at the University of Wurzburg, Bavaria, where he holds the Chair in Geodynamics and Geomaterials Research. He is an honorary research associate at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, where he rose from lecturer to associate professor between 1989 and 2004. From 1998 to 2004 he was the leader of the Earth Science subprogramme of the South African National Antarctic Programme. He is a former president of the Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA) and advisor at the national and European level on matters concerning mineral deposits. His main research interests range from economic geology, metamorphic petrology, Precambrian palaeoclimate and palaeogeography, to sedimentary geochemistry and the role of early life in metallogenesis.