This volume reviews the experience of cooperation in five international river basins, focusing on the perceptions of risks
and opportunities by decision makers in countries responding to a specific prospect of cooperation. For each basin, the analysis
centered on "tipping points," or periods in time when policymakers in the countries involved were faced with a critical decision
concerning water cooperation. This study was inspired, in part, by the intensified involvement of the World Bank and development
partners in shared international waters, resulting in a growing interest to better understand the political economy surrounding
regional cooperation deals over water. While the associated economic benefits and costs of cooperation are generally well
analyzed, the perceptions of decision makers regarding political risks and opportunities have been much less explored. Responding
to this knowledge gap, this study looked at the political dimension of cooperation over international waters, beginning with
perceived risks. Five categories of perceived risk were analyzed: 1) Capacity and Knowledge; 2) Accountability and Voice;
3) Sovereignty and Autonomy; 4) Equity and Access; and 5) Stability and Support. All five categories of risk were found to
exert a significant influence on cooperation decisions, indicating that perceived risks were a core consideration for decision
makers in countries. Furthermore, cooperation was more likely when risks were reduced, or opportunities created for political
gains. This has important implications for development partners' engagement in shared international waters. Partners are advised
to conduct risk assessments in consultation with countries involved, and devise plans for reducing perceived risks. Suggested
measures for partner action are also included. In addition to the discussions of risk and enhancing the potential for cooperation,
this volume offers some important lessons on supporting cooperation. First, cooperation can take several years of planning
and confidence building, often before negotiations even begin. Thus, a long-term time commitment by partners is likely required.
Finally, deals are dynamic. Once a deal is reached, the situation does not become static: deals can be fragile and fall apart
or evolve and grow into stronger and more sustainable arrangements. Accordingly, periodic assessments are needed to reflect
changing realities and as inputs for a revised strategy.|It is often said that children have always been part of the workforce.
With the onset of the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century, children were exploited under miserable conditions
in factories, and a movement against child labor began. A worldwide campaign increased awareness and alerted international
organizations and governments to the idea that child labor would best be replaced by child education.
objectives of such a campaign seem simple and laudable but the issues involved are complex and questions must be answered:
What actually is child labor, and what determines childhood? How many child laborers are there in the world? Is child labor
restricted to developing countries or is it frequently used in order to stigmatize the non-Western world? Is regulation of
labor conditions the solution or should governments and civil society opt for a radical ban? Is there a role for corporate
Kristoffel Lieten is professor of child labour studies at the International Institute
of Social Studies at the University of Amsterdam.