Web Design in a Nutshell

A Desktop Quick Reference

Are you still designing web sites like it's 1999? If so, you're in for a surprise. Since the last edition of this book appeared five years ago, there has been a major climate change with regard to web standards. Les mer
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Are you still designing web sites like it's 1999? If so, you're in for a surprise. Since the last edition of this book appeared five years ago, there has been a major climate change with regard to web standards. Designers are no longer using (X)HTML as a design tool, but as a means of defining the meaning and structure of content. Cascading Style Sheets are no longer just something interesting to tinker with, but rather a reliable method for handling all matters of presentation, from fonts and colors to the layout of the entire page. In fact, following the standards is now a mandate of professional web design. Our popular reference, "Web Design in a Nutshell", is one of the first books to capture this new web landscape with an edition that's been completely rewritten and expanded to reflect the state of the art. In addition to being an authoritative reference for (X)HTML and Cascading Style Sheets, this book also provides an overview of the unique requirements of designing for the Web and gets to the nitty-gritty of JavaScript and DOM Scripting, web graphics optimization, and multimedia production. It is an indispensable tool for web designers and developers of all levels.
The third edition covers these contemporary web design topics: Structural layer - HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.0 (9 chapters), including an alphabetical reference of all elements, attributes and character entities; Presentation layer - ten all-new chapters on Cascading Style Sheets, Level 2.1, including an alphabetical reference of all properties and values; Behavior layer - JavaScript and scripting with the Document Object Model (DOM); Web environment - new web standards, browsers, display devices, accessibility, and internationalization; Web graphics optimization - producing lean and mean GIF, JPEG, PNG, and animated GIFs; and Multimedia - Web audio, video, Flash, and PDF. Organized so that readers can find answers quickly, "Web Design in a Nutshell, Third Edition" helps experienced designers come up to speed quickly on standards-based web design, and serves as a quick reference for those already familiar with the new standards and technology. There are many books for web designers, but none that address such a wide variety of topics. Find out why nearly half a million buyers have made this the most popular web design book available.

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Forewordxv
Contributorsxvii
Technical Reviewersxix
Prefacexxi
Part I. The Web Environment




1. Web Standards

3(9)




What Are Standards?

3(3)




Current Web Standards

6(3)




Standards-Driven Design

9(2)




For Further Reading

11(1)




2. Designing for a Variety of Browsers

12(15)




Browser History

12(2)




Browser Roll-Call

14(5)




Gathering Usage Statistics

19(1)




Learning from Browser Statistics

20(2)




Dealing with Browser Differences

22(3)




Know Your Audience

25(1)




Test!

25(2)




3. Designing for a Variety of Displays

27(15)




Designing for Unknown Monitor Resolutions

28(2)




Fixed Versus Liquid Web Pages

30(7)




Designing "Above the Fold"

37(1)




Mobile Devices

37(5)




4. A Beginner's Guide to the Server

42(14)




Servers 101

42(4)




Unix Directory Structures

46(4)




File Naming Conventions

50(1)




Uploading Documents (FTP)

50(3)




File (MIME) Types

53(3)




5. Accessibility

56(16)




Types of Disabilities

56(1)




Overview of Assistive Technology

57(2)




Who Is Responsible for Accessibility?

59(1)




Web Content Accessibility Guidelines

60(4)




Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0)

64(1)




Standards Variations and Section 508

64(1)




Web Accessibility Techniques

65(3)




Testing for Accessibility

68(4)




6. Internationalization

72(17)




Character Sets and Encoding

73(5)




Character References

78(2)




Language Features

80(4)




Style Sheets Language Features

84(1)




For Further Reading

85(4)
Part II. The Structural Layer: XML and (X)HTML




7. Introduction to XML

89(24)




XML Basics

90(1)




How It Works

91(2)




XML Document Syntax

93(3)




Well-Formed XML

96(1)




Document Type Definition (DTD)

97(6)




XML Namespaces

103(1)




XML on the Web

104(1)




Web-Related XML Applications

105(7)




Where to Learn More

112(1)




8. HTML and XHTML Overview

113(17)




The Role of HTML

114(1)




Markup Basics

115(4)




Introduction to XHTML

119(3)




Which Standard Is Right for You?

122(1)




Well-Formed XHTML

123(3)




Web Authoring Tools

126(2)




Good Authoring Practices

128(2)




9. Document Structure

130(14)




Minimal Document Structure

130(2)




Document Type Declaration

132(3)




The Root Element

135(1)




The Document Header

136(6)




The Document Body

142(2)




10. Text Elements

144(25)




Choosing Text Elements

145(1)




The Building Blocks of Content

146(3)




Inline Elements

149(3)




Deleted and Inserted Text

152(1)




Generic Elements (div and span)

153(3)




Lists

156(5)




Presentational Elements

161(6)




Character Entity References

167(2)




11. Creating Links

169(9)




Simple Hypertext Links

169(2)




Linking Within a Document

171(2)




Targeting Windows

173(1)




Alternative Protocols

173(2)




Linking Documents with link

175(3)




12. Images and Objects

178(27)




Inline Images

178(8)




Image Maps

186(6)




Embedded Media

192(9)




Java Applets

201(2)




Inline (Floating) Frames

203(2)




13. Tables

205(27)




Table Uses

206(1)




Basic Table Structure

207(6)




Row Groups

213(1)




Columns and Column Groups

214(2)




Table Presentation

216(4)




Accessible Tables

220(6)




Responsible Layout Tables

226(6)




14. Frames

232(15)




Introduction to Frames

232(2)




Basic Frameset Structure

234(5)




Frame Function and Appearance

239(2)




Targeting Frames

241(3)




Frame Design Tips and Tricks

244(3)




15. Forms

247(26)




The Basic Form Element

248(2)




Form Controls

250(13)




Accessibility Features

263(4)




disabled and readonly

267(1)




Affecting Form Appearance

267(6)
Part III. The Presentation Layer: Cascading Style Sheets




16. Cascading Style Sheets Fundamentals

273(24)




CSS in a Nutshell

273(1)




The Benefits of CSS

274(1)




How CSS Works

275(1)




Rule Syntax

275(3)




Adding Styles to a Document

278(5)




Key Concepts

283(8)




Specifying Values

291(2)




Browser Support

293(1)




For Further Reading

294(3)




17. Selectors

297(10)




Type (Element) Selector

297(1)




Contextual Selectors

298(1)




Class and ID Selectors

299(2)




Attribute Selectors

301(1)




Pseudoselectors

302(5)




18. Font and Text Properties

307(30)




Typography on the Web

307(3)




Font Family

310(2)




Font Size

312(6)




Other Font Settings

318(4)




Text Transformation (Capitalization)

322(1)




Text Decoration

323(2)




Line Height

325(2)




Text Alignment Properties

327(5)




Text Spacing

332(3)




Text Direction

335(2)




19. Basic Box Properties

337(18)




The Box Model, Revisited

338(3)




Width and Height

341(3)




Margins

344(3)




Borders

347(5)




Padding

352(3)




20. Color and Backgrounds

355(13)




Foreground Color

355(2)




Background Color

357(1)




Background Images

358(10)




21. Floating and Positioning

368(24)




Normal Flow

368(1)




Floating

369(6)




Positioning Basics

375(10)




Absolute Positioning

385(4)




Fixed Positioning

389(1)




Relative Positioning

390(2)




22. CSS for Tables

392(14)




The Essence of Tables

392(4)




Styling Tables

396(2)




Borders

398(3)




Table Layout (Width and Height)

401(2)




Table Display Values

403(3)




23. Lists and Generated Content

406(13)




CSS for Lists

406(6)




Generated Content

412(7)




24. CSS Techniques

419(29)




Centering a Page

419(2)




Two-Column Layouts

421(3)




Three-Column Layouts

424(8)




Boxes with Rounded Corners

432(4)




Image Replacement

436(4)




CSS Rollovers

440(3)




List-Based Navigation Bars

443(3)




CSS Techniques Resources

446(2)




25. Managing Browser Bugs: Workarounds, Hacks, and Filters

448(17)




Working with "Troubled" Browsers

448(1)




The Browsers

449(10)




Hack and Workaround Management 101

459(6)
Part IV. The Behavioral Layer: JavaScript and the DOM




26. Introduction to JavaScript

465(23)




A Little Background

465(1)




Using JavaScript

466(2)




JavaScript Syntax

468(16)




Event Handling

484(2)




The Browser Object

486(1)




Where to Learn More

487(1)




27. DOM Scripting

488(27)




A Sordid Past

488(1)




Out of the Dark Ages

489(1)




The DOM

489(2)




Manipulating Documents with the DOM

491(10)




Working with Style

501(1)




DOM Scripting in Action

502(5)




Supplement: Getting Started with Ajax

507(8)
Part V. Web Graphics




28. Web Graphics Overview

515(14)




Web Graphic File Formats

515(2)




Image Resolution

517(2)




Color on the Web

519(5)




Web Graphics Production Tips

524(5)




29. GIF Format

529(15)




8-Bit Indexed Color

530(1)




LZW Compression

531(2)




Interlacing

533(1)




Transparency

534(2)




Minimizing GIF File Sizes

536(5)




Designing GIFs with the Web Palette

541(3)




30. JPEG Format

544(8)




24-Bit Color

544(1)




JPEG Compression

545(2)




Progressive JPEGs

547(1)




Creating JPEGs

548(1)




Minimizing JPEG File Size

548(4)




31. PNG Format

552(12)




When to Use PNGs

552(2)




PNG Features

554(4)




Platform/Browser Support

558(1)




Creating PNG Files

559(2)




PNG Optimization Strategies

561(2)




For Further Reading

563(1)




32. Animated GIFs

564(11)




How They Work

564(1)




Using Animated GIFs

565(1)




Tools

565(1)




Creating Animated GIFs

566(4)




Optimizing Animated GIFs

570(5)
Part VI. Media




33. Audio on the Web

575(20)




Basic Digital Audio Concepts

575(2)




Using Existing Audio

577(1)




Preparing Your Own Audio

578(3)




Streaming Audio

581(2)




Audio Formats

583(7)




Choosing an Audio Format

590(1)




Adding Audio to a Web Page

590(5)




34. Video on the Web

595(14)




Basic Digital Video Concepts

595(1)




Compression

596(2)




Video File Formats

598(5)




Adding Video to an HTML Document

603(6)




35. The Flash Platform

609(17)




Using Flash on Web Pages

610(2)




Creating Flash Movies

612(3)




ActionScript

615(1)




Adding Flash to a Web Page

616(6)




Integrating Flash with Other Technologies

622(1)




The Flash Player

623(2)




Flash Resources

625(1)




36. Printing from the Web

626(15)




Browser Print Mechanisms

626(1)




Cascading Style Sheets for Print

627(7)




Portable Document Format (PDF)

634(3)




Flash Printing

637
Part VII. Appendixes




A. HTML Elements and Attributes

641(43)




B. CSS 2.1 Properties

684(38)




C. Character Entities

722(11)




D. Specifying Color

733(9)




E. Microformats: Extending (X)HTML

742(5)
Glossary747(10)
Index757